operations. As an aid to conducting an inspection the
following items should be checked:
Food handlers. Clean personal appearance that
includes clean working uniform (including apron and
cap), haircut, clean shave, close-clipped fingernails,
head covering, neatness in dress, and absence of cuts,
sores, acne, or other indications of skin disorders on
exposed parts of head, hands, or arms.
Galley. Deck drains, sinks, and grease traps must
be clean and free of any dirt and food particles. Inspect
for insect and rodent infestation.
Ranges and grills.
Clean and free from grease
(ovens, unit cover, drip pan, range grease receptacles,
hood and hood filters).
Can opener and base. Clean and free from
accumulated grime and food particles.
Deep-fat fryers. Clean, coils clean, basket clean,
and in good condition.
Clean under cover and
cover-exhaust opening; lids and spigots easily
removable without tools for cleaning. Drain clean and
free of food particles.
Ovens. Clean and free of burned food and food
Sinks and galley utensils. Clean and neatly stored;
steel and plastic sponges (but not steel wool) used for
cleaning galley utensils are clean and free of food
particles, air dried, and neatly stored.
Mixing machines and attachments, ice-cream
machine, meat and vegetable grinders and attachments,
and proof boxes.
Clean and in good operating
Clean and dry, no evidence of
cracks or pitted surfaces.
Vegetable-preparation room. Inspect for
cleanliness of deck, drains, traps, and sinks. Look for
any sign of insect and rodent infestation.
Potato-peeling machine. Dismantled (cover and
disk removed), wash-water strainer clean and in good
Slicing and dicing machine. Dismantled, clean
(parts oiled if not in use), and in good condition.
Inspect for cleanliness of decks,
tables, benches, serving tables, coffee urns, milk
dispensers, warming ovens, water fountains, and ice
machines; all gear clean and neatly stored. Look for
insect and rodent infestation.
Decks and gear must be clean.
Dishwashing machine dismantled, clean and free of
odors, spray pipe clean, racks clean and in good
condition, curtains clean and in good condition,
thermometers operating properly, and trash and garbage
cans clean and tightly covered
Garbage and trash room. Clean, orderly, and free
from obnoxious odors; cans clean and tightly covered.
Inspect for insect and rodent infestation.
The 4-Hour Rule
Protein foods that are not served immediately after
they are cooked should either be chilled to temperatures
of 40°F or lower (but not frozen) or held at 140°F or
higher. Protein foods include meats, fish, poultry,
gravies, meat stocks, soups, eggs, custards, cream
fillings, and milk. Growth of harmful bacteria and the
development of toxins (poisons) formed by the bacteria
occur rapidly in cooked protein foods during holding at
temperatures between 40°F and 140°F. Cooked protein
foods that have been held at temperatures between 40°F
and 140°F for more than 4 hours will be considered unfit
for consumption and must be destroyed.
This principle is known as the 4-hour rule. If the
product is refrigerated at intervals and then permitted to
warm up, the total time of the various periods between
40°F and 140°F must not be more than 4 hours. Protein
foods composed of ingredients that are hand-peeled,
hand-sliced, or hand-diced after they are cooked should
never be used as leftovers; the 4-hour limit between
temperatures of 40°F and 140°F is usually taken in
preparing, chilling, and serving the food. These foods
include potato, chicken, macaroni, shrimp, and egg
salads and similar items. Hand preparation not only
increases the chance of contamination, but generally
increases the length of time that these foods are held at
It is also dangerous to return
opened jars or bowls of mayonnaise and cooked salad
dressing from the salad bar to the refrigerator for reuse
at a later meal because of the danger of miscalculation
as to the total time that has
these salad dressings have
between 40°F and 140°F.
elapsed from the time that
been held at temperatures
Holding temperatures are of utmost importance.
Food held at temperatures that are too high or too low