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Vitamins - 14164_153
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Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
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Food Guide Pyramid
process. Vitamin E is found in a wide variety of foods, and most people get enough. Vegetable oils and whole grain cereals are particularly rich sources. Vitamin K.—  Vitamin K is essential because it indirectly  helps  blood  to  clot.  Vitamin  K  is  widely distributed in a variety of foods such as the green and leafy  vegetables,  tomatoes,  cauliflower,  egg  yolks, soybean   oil,   and   any   kind   of   liver.   It   is   also manufactured  in  the  body. Three  of  the  best  known  B  vitamins-riboflavin, thiamine,  and  niacin-release  the  energy  in  food.  They also  have  a  role  in  the  nervous  system,  keep  the digestive system working calmly, and help maintain a healthy skin. Thiamine (B1).— Thiamine is abundant in only a few foods. Lean pork is one. Dry beans and peas, some of  the  organ  meats,  and  some  nuts  supply  some thiamine. A lack of thiamine (vitamin  B1 ) causes beriberi. Fortunately, this disease is now almost nonexistent in the United States, although it is still seen in some alcoholics. Riboflavin (B2).— Riboflavin is easy to find and extremely important in the diet. It is plentifully supplied by meats, milk and whole grain or enriched breads and cereals. Organ meats (liver, kidney, and so on) also supply this vitamin. Niacin.—Niacin  (nicotinic  acid)  prevents  a  disease called pellagra. It aids in digestion and the health of the skin. Whole grain and enriched cereals and bread are dependable  sources  of  niacin.  Niacin  also  can  be found  in  meat  and  meat  products  and  peas  and beans. Other B Vitamins.— Other B vitamins, such as B6, BIz,  and  folacin,  are  needed  to  maintain  normal hemoglobin-the substance in blood that carries oxygen to the tissues. Vitamin B12 occurs in foods of animal origin. Folacin helps in the production of red blood cells and is available in many foods but in small quantities. Sources of folacin are liver, green vegetables, whole grains, and dry beans. Strict  vegetarians  run  a  risk  of  developing  the symptoms   of  Blz  deficiency;  these  include soreness  of  the  mouth  and  tongue,  numbness  and tingling  in  the  hands  and  legs,  anemia  and  loss  of coordination. 7-4 WATER.—  Water is often called the forgotten nutrient. It is needed to replace lost body water, Water helps transport nutrients, remove waste, and regulate body  temperature. CONSERVING NUTRIENTS.— It is not enough just to select the proper foods for the menu. They must be prepared in such a way that valuable nutrients are not lost. Table 7-1 presents summary information about vitamins. In addition to listing foods that are good sources of vitamins, it also shows conditions under which the vitamin content may be reduced and the effect of their deficiency in the diet. This information will be valuable  to  you  in  making  and  analyzing  menus,  and also  in  conserving  vitamins  during  cooking.  The  term stability used in the illustration refers to the ability of the various substances to withstand destruction under the  conditions  mentioned. The following cooking rules, if followed, will make your meals more nutritious and add to the general health of the crew. Serve  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables  as  soon  after you receive them as possible. Handle  fresh  fruits  and  vegetables  carefully because   bruising   causes   a   rapid   loss   of vitamins. Store fresh fruits and vegetables properly until they are to be used. Do not soak vegetables in water longer than necessary  to  freshen  or  clean  them.  Water  will dissolve vitamins  Bl, Bz, C, and minerals. To cook vegetables, place them in rapidly boiling water. Bring the water back to a boil and reduce to a simmer. Cook vegetables quickly and just until tender in order to leave them with some of their original crispness. Cook  vegetables  in  as  little  water  as  possible. Do not throw away cooking water. Save it for use in soups, sauces, and gravies. Heat  canned  vegetables  quickly  just  before serving. Shred  outer  leaves  of  lettuce,  cabbage,  and green  leaves  of  celery  for  use  in  flavoring soups. Serve fruits and vegetables raw in salads.

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