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Extreme Temperatures
Naval Safety Supervisor - Military manual on safety practices
Material Failures or Malfunctions
The following are examples of frequently seen displays of  undesirable  motives: Trying to save time and effort Trying  to  maintain  personal  comfort Trying  to  express  resentment An  undesirable  motive  is  clearly  a  complex problem. A person does not react simply to the basic needs   of   comfort,   security,   belonging,   and self-fulfillment.   Attitudes,   feelings,   and   emotions stemming  from  a  multitude  of  sources  also  affect  a person’s motives. Chapter 2 discussed attitudes and motivation. LACK OF TRAINING AND EXPERIENCE Mishaps caused by a lack of training and experience occur most often when people tackle a task with which they are neither familiar nor qualified. Experienced personnel  can  clearly  recognize  hazardous  conditions that inexperienced persons may not notice. Since the inexperienced persons’ limitations then exceed their capabilities, a mishap may occur. The  imbalance  between  a  person’s  skills  and required  levels  of  training  shows  through  improperly followed  procedures,  shortcuts,  errors  in  judgment,  and improper  maintenance  and  operations.  Supervisory personnel sometimes contribute to mishaps by making assignments   without   adequate   knowledge   of   the capabilities   and   limitations   of   their   people   and equipment. When you are training inexperienced people for new  jobs,  their  training  needs  are  obvious.  They  need your  help  to  gain  the  knowledge  and  skills  they  must have to do a job. Even when you provide people with the basic skills to do a job, they may not thoroughly understand it. They may be unable to retain what you taught them. You must counterbalance this lack of understanding with close supervision. As  people  become  more  experienced  and  less closely  supervised,  training  deficiencies  become  more apparent.  Finding  people  placed  in  tasks  beyond  their current  skill  development  is  not  uncommon.  When asked if they can handle the assignment, many respond positively. They do not want to appear incompetent. Knowledge alone is not always enough to prevent a mishap. Most tasks in the Navy require a certain skill level. These skills can vary from those required to paint a bulkhead to those required to operate a nuclear reactor. To properly accomplish any job, people must safely develop  skills  through  practice. INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS Since  interpersonal  relationships  with  our  peers, supervisors,  spouses,  and  parents  can  affect  our  mental attitudes  and  moods,  they  can  contribute  to  mishaps.  A worker’s distraction because of worry about a pending divorce can lead to a mishap. A worker’s disregard of an   order   because   of   a   personality   conflict   with management or a supervisor can result in a mishap too. To avoid being labeled a “wimp,” a person may give in to  peer  pressure  and  purposely  take  risks,  such  as working without eye protection. That can also result in a mishap. When  you  investigate  the  causes  of  a  mishap, carefully  consider  the  personal  lives  of  the  people involved. Are they having problems at home? Are they under pressure because of financial troubles? Could peer interaction possibly have contributed to the cause of the mishap? MAINTENANCE AND SUPPORT FACTORS Maintenance and support factors include improper maintenance,  improper  priority  assignments  on  work requests, or lack of proper quality assurance (QA). Shipyards,    intermediate    maintenance    activities, contractors,  or  a  ship’s  force  may  be  involved  with maintenance  and  support. Mishaps  can  result  from  the  way  the  manufacturer made,  assembled,  or  installed  the  equipment.  They  can result  from  premature  equipment  failure  caused  by  a manufacturer’s  improper  processing  and  fabrication, improper  assembly,  or  use  of  improper  materials. Mishaps can also result from part failures caused by a manufacturer’s deviation from design specifications, such as incorrect size, weight, strength, and similar engineering   characteristics. Material damage and personal injury mishaps can result  from  improperly  maintained  equipment.  A  motor incorrectly rewound at a shipyard could short out and cause a fire. Improper QA or the lack of approved QA procedures  can  result  in  a  mishap.  These  types  of mishaps overlap with human error causes. 3-4

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