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Safety Philosophy
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Naval Safety Supervisor - Military manual on safety practices
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Salesmanship
This  risk  assessment  determines  the  level  of  risk involved.  The  level  of  risk  is  indicated  by  a  risk assessment  code  (RAC).  Chapter  3  discusses  RACs. A  good  safety  attitude  means  the  worker  will perform work in a manner that will reduce risks. A worker with a poor safety attitude would merely accept the risks and put up with the results. A good safety attitude  in  workers  depends  on  the  safety  supervisor. You  can  foster  good  safety  attitudes  through communication, motivation, and salesmanship. COMMUNICATION Good  communication  between  workers  and  safety supervisors helps maintain interest in safety. Afloat and shore safety committees and safety councils, discussed in  chapter  1,  bring  workers’  safety  concerns  to supervisors. Through these committees and councils, the  commanding  officer  becomes  aware  of  unsafe conditions  and  hazards  that  require  corrective  action. When workers see the command take action to correct a hazard, they understand that they play an important part  in  the  safety  program.  They  also  see  that  the command cares enough about their safety to correct hazards. We need hazard information so that we can correct hazards, not place blame or discipline a worker. We must  never  coerce  or  threaten  crewmembers  and workers to report hazards. They should feel comfortable in reporting a hazard to their supervisor or be able to report a hazard anonymously. Good communication between  workers  and  their  supervisors  encourages  safe attitudes and trust in their command. The sincerity of a safety supervisor is obvious in how he or she deals with safety problems and complaints. MOTIVATION To ensure total participation in the safety program, the command must motivate its people. It must motivate personnel to behave in a manner that will meet the various goals of the command. Program success consists of  determining  each  person’s  needs.  It  also  consists  of selecting   and   providing   appropriate   incentives (reinforcers) to meet those needs. It also should establish reasonable tolerance limits so that goals are achievable. Some  incentives  that  serve  to  motivate  people  include the  following: Instinct  for  self-preservation Desire  for  material  gain Desire  for  praise  and  acceptance Fear of ridicule or disapproval Sense  of  humanity Sense of responsibility Sense of loyalty Competitive   instinct Desire for power or leadership Peer pressure and a desire to conform We   cannot   overemphasize   the   importance   of matching each person’s needs to the proper incentives. A basic principle of behavior reveals that workers will repeat desirable behavior if the supervisor reinforces or rewards their actions. If the supervisor doesn’t reinforce or  reward  a  behavior,  workers  will  stop  the  behavior. Thus, a command must have an awards or incentives system. An incentives system not only determines how people will perform their various jobs, but how they think about them as well. An incentives system can reenforce mishap-free behavior and encourage safe performance.  Similarly,  it  can  discourage  unsafe  and reckless  behavior  through  the  withholding  of reinforcement. For an awards system to be effective, however, we must provide timely reinforcement. If a person is doing a good job, we should not wait until the end of the year to give that person a letter of appreciation  or  commendation.  Immediately  after  the desired behavior occurs, we should provide positive reinforcement.  That  increases  the  chance  of  recurrence of good work. Too much time between behavior and reward may confuse the person. He or she may not know which behavior was noteworthy. Reinforcement must also be sincere and relate to a person’s needs People will see an “attaboy” given for a job they know they did not do well for what it is: an insincere, meaningless pat on the back. A child may respond to such an act, but an adult will not. Similarly, people will view other incentives that fail to satisfy real needs as meaningless. Providing  feedback  about  job  performance  also motivates  people  to  perform  desired  actions.  Motivation increases when reward is inherent in the task itself. An example is a technician who achieves a sense of satisfac- tion from a job well done. Motivation is highest when opportunities   exist   for   achievement,   recognition, increased  responsibilities,  and  advancement.  Such factors should be part of the job itself. 2-2

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