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Figure 5-1.—Industrial hygiene officer conducting a survey
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Naval Safety Supervisor - Military manual on safety practices
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Preventing Heat Stress
Time-weighted  average  (TWA)–The  average concentration of a contaminant in air during a specific  period,  usually  an  8-hour  workday  or  a 40-hour  workweek. Threshold limit value (TLV)–An atmospheric exposure level under which nearly all workers can  work  without  harmful  effects.  TLVs  are established  by  the  American  Conference  of Governmental  Industrial  Hygienists  (ACGIH). NAVOSH PROGRAMS THAT ADDRESS SPECIFIC HAZARDS We will now discuss the administration of various NAVOSH  programs  that  address  specific  hazards. These  hazards  include  hearing  conservation,  sight conservation,   respiratory   protection,   heat   stress, electrical   safety   (tag-out   program),   and   personal protective   equipment.   In   addition,   we   will   cover hazardous material control and management, asbestos control,  gas  free  engineering,  and  lead  control. OPNAVINST 5100.23C, chapters 7 through 27, and OPNAVINST 5100.19B, volume I, part B, chapters B1 through B12, discuss these subjects in detail. The basic criteria  are  similar,  whether  applied  ashore  or  afloat. Refer to the appropriate NAVOSH manual for program details. HEAT STRESS CONTROL AND PREVENTION  PROGRAM We define heat stress as any combination of work, air flow, humidity, air temperature, thermal radiation, or internal body condition that strains the body. Heat stress becomes  excessive  when  the  strain  to  regulate  its temperature exceeds the body’s capability to adjust. Personnel affected by heat stress can suffer fatigue, nausea,  severe  headache,  and  poor  physical  and  mental performance. As body temperature continues to rise (because of prolonged exposure), heat rash and heat injuries (such as heat cramps, heat exhaustion, and heat stroke)  occur.  Heat  stroke  severely  impairs  the  body’s temperature-regulating   ability   and   can   be   fatal. Recognizing heat stress symptoms and getting prompt medical attention for affected persons are all-hands responsibilities. From  1989  to  1992,  68  people  received  injuries from heat exhaustion or heat stress at shore activities. All of these injuries involved lost time away from work. Thirteen people lost 5 or more workdays. Of the 41 incidents involving military people, 29 (71 percent) people were drilling, playing, or taking part in physical fitness  training.  The  rest  were  working. Aboard ship, nearly 50 heat stress reports were filed in  1991,  most  involving  personnel  wearing  the fire-fighting ensemble (FFE). During Operation Desert Storm, the control of heat stress among engineering plant watch standers was critical. In the hot climate around Saudi Arabia, ships were unable to maintain air conditioning and ice machines that broke down from overuse.   Heat   stress   caused   by   air   and   water temperatures   above   90°F   threatened   operational readiness. Symptoms of Heat Stress The following arc the symptoms of heat stress and the steps you should take to help the victim: Heat Exhaustion: Victims have pale and clammy skin and experience profuse sweating. Their pulse is fast but weak, and their breathing is fast and shallow.  They  may  experience  weakness,  nausea, dizziness, and mild cramps. Move victims to a cool location and seek medical attention for them as soon as  possible. Heat Stroke: Victims have hot, flushed, dry skin. Their pulse is fast and strong, and their breathing is fast and deep. They may twitch or vomit. Shock will follow. Heat stroke is a life-threatening medical emergency.  Call  a  medical  emergency  immediately. Controlling Heat Stress You can encounter heat stress aboard U.S. Navy ships  in  workshops,  laundries,  sculleries,  engineering spaces, food preparation spaces, and steam catapult spaces. Detailed surveys of ship spaces have confirmed that these heat stress conditions often have been so severe that a limit was placed on personnel exposures to avoid serious harm. The primary correctable causes of heat stress in these spaces were as follows:. Excessive  steam  and  water  leaks Boiler air casing leaks Missing,   damaged,   improperly   installed   or deteriorated  thermal  insulation  on  steam  piping, valves,  and  machinery Ventilation  system  deficiencies,  including  design deficiencies,  missing  or  damaged  duct  work, misdirected  terminals,  improper  or  clogged screens,  closed  or  partially  closed  CIRCLE WILLIAM dampers, dirty ventilation ducting, and  inoperative  fan  motors  and  controllers 5-5

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