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Apparent and Mean Solar Time, Continued - 14220_150
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Quartermaster 1 & C - Military manual for the Quartermaster rate
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Standard Time Zones - 14220_152
Definition of Terms GMT UT LMT ZT ZD Greenwich  mean  time  (GMT)  is  the  basis  or  origin  of  longitude measurement.  It  is  mean  solar  time  measured  with  reference  to  the  0° meridian  of  longitude  located  at  Greenwich,  England.  GMT  is  of  prime importance to you because much of the time referenced in almanacs relates to GMT. When we discussed mean solar time we said that it was based on a fictional Sun that is considered to move at a constant rate of 360° in 24 hours  along  the  celestial  meridian.  This  solved  the  problem  of  unequal day  length,  but  even  with  mean  time  there  are  slight  variations.  The  most precise  time  yet  developed  by  man  is  kept  by  atomic  "clocks,"  which operate  using  cesium  beam  oscillators.  This  steady,  internationally adjusted  time  is  called  Coordinated  Universal  Time  (UTC).  For  our purposes, it is the same as GMT and is the time signal broadcast as radio time signals. Local  mean  time  is  mean  solar  time  measured  with  reference  to  your meridian; that is, the meridian where you are located. Zone  time  is  the  time  you  use  to  set  your  watch  and  clocks.  Zone  time uses  the  standard  (central)  meridians  of  the  various  time  zones  as reference  meridians. The zone description of a time zone is the adjustment to be applied to that time zone to determine GMT. Discussion Although most of the above terms may be new to you, they will all make sense  when  we  cover  the  rest  of  the  material  in  this  chapter.  In  carrying out the daily routines you will often be required to convert time zones and work  with  time  calculations.  After  a  bit  of  practice,  the  procedures contained  in  this  chapter  will  become  second  nature.  In  fact,  in  most cases you will learn to quickly do time calculation in your head. Let’s move on to how time is broken down into standard meridians (zones) and then how that relates to longitude. 5-5

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