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Introduction to Tides - 14220_183
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Quartermaster 1 & C - Military manual for the Quartermaster rate
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Types of Tides and Reference Planes - 14220_185
Effect of the Sun and Moon on Tides Spring  and Neap Tides As  previously  mentioned,  tides  that  occur  on  Earth  result  from  both solar  and  lunar  influences.  When  these  two  bodies  are  in  line  with Earth,  as  shown  in  figure  7-1,  their  combined  effect  causes  high  tides  to be  higher  than  average  and  low  tides  to  be  lower  than  average.  These types  of  tides  are  referred  to  as  spring  tides  (and  has  nothing  to  do  with the  season  of  the  year). Figure  7-1.  Spring  tides  occur  when  influences  of  the Sun  and  the  Moon  act  together. When  the  direction  of  the  Sun  and  the  Moon  are  90°  apart,  as  when  the Moon  is  in  the  first  and  last  quarter,  the  gravitational  effect  of  the  Sun counteracts  that  of  the  Moon  enough  that  both  high  and  low  tides  are lower  than  normal.  These  types  of  tides  are  referred  to  as  neap  tides. Figure  7-2.  Relationship  of  terms  used  when  measuring  heights  and depths. 7-4

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