Quantcast Magnetic  Compass  Error - 14220_63

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Magnetic  Compass  Operation  and  Components,  Continued - 14220_62
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Quartermaster 1 & C - Military manual for the Quartermaster rate
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Magnetic  Compass  Deviation  Tables - 14220_64
Magnetic  Compass  Error Introduction Deviation Permanent Magnetism Induced Magnetism Compass   Error Next Before  we  use  a  magnetic  compass  aboard  a  ship,  we  must  first  correct for  the  magnetic  influences  that  make  the  compass  deviate  from  true  or geographic  north. The  first  influence  is  variation,  which  we  have  already  covered.  The second  is  deviation. Deviation  may  be  defined  as  the  amount  that  the  compass  is  deflected from  the  magnetic  meridian  because  of  the  effects  of  the  ship’s  iron. This  is  where  permanent  and  induced  magnetism  come  in  to  play. Also  known  as  hard-iron  magnetism,  permanent  magnetism  is  created  in the  ship’s  structure  during  the  building  process.  The  ship’s  structure gains  its  own  unique  magnetic  field  based  on  the  angle  that  the  keel  was laid. Also  known  as  soft-iron  magnetism,  induced  magnetism  varies  according to  the  intensity  of  the  component  of  Earth’s  field  in  which  it  was induced. The  amount  of  deviation  varies  as  the  ship  changes  course.  The  ship’s magnetic  effects  may  be  corrected  by  the  proper  placement  of  various correctors. The  process  of  correcting  for  deviation  error  is  called  swinging  ship. The  navigator  and  QM  gang  will  swing  the  ship  through  360  degrees, stopping  each  15  degrees  and  comparing  the  compass  heading  against  a properly  functioning  gyrocompass.  The  results  are  recorded  on  the magnetic  compass  deviation  table. Example:  While  swinging  ship  and  steady  on  course  015°  by  gyro,  the magnetic  compass  reads  016°.  It  should  read  015°;  the  1°  difference  is the  amount  of  deviation.  In  this  case,  it  is  labeled  westerly  deviation 1.0° W. The  next  topic  deals  with  the  magnetic  compass  deviation  table.  From there  we  will  look  at  degaussing,  and  then  you  will  learn  how  to perform  compass  calculations  to  correct  for  variation  and  deviation. 2-9

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