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Steering the Ship, Continued - 14220_345
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Navigational Lights - 14220_347
Steering the Ship, Continued During UNREP In Restricted Waters During  Special Evolutions From  After Steering Steering  the  ship  during  underway  replenishment  is  no  simple  task. There  are  more  factors  to  consider  other  than  wind  and  current.  When two  ships  are  alongside,  a  vortex  effect  is  created.  This  vortex  works like  a  cushion  between  the  two  ships,  normally  pushing  them  apart slightly.  Also,  when  the  rigs  are  tensioned,  the  ships  are  pulled  together slightly. Close  attention  to  keeping  the  ship  exactly  on  course  cannot  be  stressed enough.  Use  the  least  amount  of  rudder  to  accomplish  this.  Often,  the master  helmsman  will  be  required  to  steer  courses  on  0.5  degrees  such as  010.5.  While  unreping  .5°  is  the  maximum  deviation  allowed  from ordered  course.  Also,  ships  alongside  often  make  turns  while  rigs  are hooked  up.  This  requires  the  ship  on  the  outside  of  the  turn  to  slightly increase  speed.  This  type  of  maneuver  is  normally  completed  in 5-degree  increments  until  the  final  course  is  reached. Prior  to  beginning  a  UNREP,  the  bridge  watch  team  should  go  over emergency  procedures  for  loss  of  steering. Steering  the  ship  in  restricted  waters  requires  precise  shiphandling.  As with  UNREP  evolutions,  every  effort  must  be  made  to  stay  exactly  on ordered  course.  Often  the  ship  will  be  transiting  narrow  channels  where tidal  currents  may  be  strong.  This  is  not  much  of  a  problem  when  the bow  is  pointed  into  the  current;  however,  a  strong  current  from  astern can  cause  the  bow  to  fall  off  course.  This  is  especially  true  when  the ship’s  speed  is  10  knots  or  less. Special  evolutions  include  general  quarters,  launching  of  amphibious craft,  or  whenever  the  OOD  or  navigator  requires  that  the  more experienced  master  helmsman  man  the  helm. Steering  the  ship  from  after  steering  requires  total  concentration.  This  is due  mainly  to  the  fact  that  there  is  nothing  to  see  and  the  trick  wheels used  to  move  the  rudders  face  towards  the  stem.  If  steering  control  is lost  on  the  bridge,  steering  control  will  be  shifted  to  the  after  steering helmsman.  The  after  steering  helmsman  will  receive  orders  directly from  the  conning  officer  (relayed  by  the  helm  safety  officer)  or  from  the rudder  angle  order  indicator. 11-14

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