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Temperature, Dew Point, and Relative Humidity, Continued - 14220_323
Temperature, Dew Point, and Relative Humidity Measuring Temperature You  probably  don’t  need  to  be  told  that  a  thermometer  is  an  instrument for  measuring  temperature.  Generally  speaking,  it  is  a  glass  tube  of small  bore  in  which  either  alcohol  or  mercury  expands  and  contracts with  the  rise  and  fall  of  the  temperature  of  the  surrounding  medium. Most  Navy  thermometers  are  mercury-filled  and  practically  all  of  them use  the  Fahrenheit  (F)  scale,  where  the  freezing  point  of  water  is  32° and  its  boiling  point  is  212°.  Temperature  in  meteorology,  however,  is sometimes  expressed  according  to  the  Celsius  (C)  (formerly  Centigrade) scale,  where  the  freezing  point  of  water  is  0°  and  its  boiling  point  is 100°. You  may  be  required  to  convert  a  Fahrenheit  reading  to  Celsius,  or  vice versa.  Knowing  that  32°F  =  0°C,  to  change  a  Fahrenheit  reading  to Celsius,  you  first  subtract  32°  and  then  multiply  the  remainder  by  5/9. Example:  Say  you  want  to  change  41°F  to  Celsius.  Subtracting  32° from  41°  gives  9°.  Multiply  9°  by  5/9,  and  you  get  45/9,  or  5°C. To  change  from  Celsius  to  Fahrenheit,  simply  reverse  the  procedure. First  multiply  the  Celsius  temperature  by  9/5,  then  add  32°.  In  the previous  example,  to  change  5°C  back  to  Fahrenheit,  first  multiply  it  by 9/5,  which  gives  you  45/5,  or  9°.  Adding  32”  gives  you  41°F. You  may  also  use  the  following  formulas: F  =  1.8 C  +  32  (Multiply  Celsius  temp  by  1.8,  then  add  32  to  find Fahrenheit) C  =  F  -32  divided  by  1.8  (Fahrenheit  minus  32,  then  divide  by  1.8  to find Celsius) A  thermometer  must  be  read  properly  to  obtain  an  accurate  result.  First, if  you  must  handle  it,  be  sure  that  you  do  not  touch  the  lower  part  of  the glass  containing  the  alcohol  or  mercury,  because  the  heat  from  your body  can  affect  the  height  of  the  mercury  or  alcohol  column.  Make certain  that  the  top  of  the  column  is  level  with  your  eyes;  otherwise  you will  be  reading  a  higher  or  lower  graduation  than  the  one  actually indicated.  The  top  of  the  column  is  in  the  shape  of  a  curve  called  a meniscus.  It  is  the  bottom  of  this  curve  that  indicates  the  reading  for  an alcohol  thermometer;  the  top,  for  a  Mercury  thermometer. 10-26

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