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Cloud Formations - 14221_302
Circulation of the Wind Upon Earth, Continued The Tradewinds The  tradewinds  are  found  just  north  and  south  of  the  doldrums. Whenever  the  doldrums  are  absent  in  some  part  of  the  equatorial  region, the  tradewinds  of  the  Northern  and  Southern  Hemispheres  converge, causing  heavy  rain  squalls.  A  feature  of  the  trade  belt  is  the  regularity of  the  systems,  especially  over  the  oceans.  The  wind  blowing  above  and counter  to  the  trade  is  called  the  ANTITRADE. Horse  Latitudes The  areas  of  the  subtropical  high-pressure  cells,  where  the  winds  are light  and  variable  are  about  30°N  to  40°N  and  30°S  to  40°S.  They  are called  the  horse  latitudes.  Fair  weather  is  characteristic  of  this  region, due  to  the  descending  air.  The  pressure  decreases  outward  from  this area,  and  the  prevailing  westerlies  are  on  the  poleward  side,  with  the tradewinds  on  the  equatorial  side. Prevailing Westerlies The  prevailing  westerlies,  which  are  on  the  poleward  side  of  the tradewinds  are  persistent  through  the  midlatitudes.  In  the  Northern Hemisphere  their  direction  at  the  surface  is  from  the  southwest,  and  in the  Southern  Hemisphere  from  the  northwest.  This  is  a  result  of  the deflection  caused  by  the  Coriolis  force  as  air  moves  poleward.  The Coriolis  effect  is  the  apparent  force  exerted  by  the  rotation  of  Earth. The  front  zone  lies  poleward  of  the  prevailing  westerlies. Polar  Region Winds In  the  polar  cells,  polewards  of  the  polar  front  zone,  the  surface  winds are  known  as  the  polar  easterlies  (polar  northeasterlies  at  the  North  Pole and  southeasterlies  at  the  South  Pole).  They  move  the  northeast  in  the Northern  Hemisphere  and  from  the  southeast  in  the  Southern Hemisphere.  They  are  very  shallow  due  to  the  low  temperatures  and  are overlain  by  the  westerlies.  This  circulation  pattern  is  temporarily disrupted  by  the  migratory  pressure  systems  in  all  areas  but  returns  to the  original  pattern. 10-5

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