Weather Observation and Reporting
Timely and accurate environmental observations are basic to the
development of meteorological and oceanographic forecasts in support of
fleet operations. Since the U.S. Navy may be committed to operations
anywhere in the world, global observations of meteorological and
oceanographic conditions are required. In remote areas (especially over
oceans), environmental data are extremely sparse.
Accordingly, observations from Navy ships are particularly vital. In
short, all ships at sea are required to take regular observations, but
where ships are steaming in company or in close proximity (within 10
miles), the OTC may designate one of the ships to report observations
for the group. Ships in port are required to continue regular weather
observing and reporting by electronic means unless there is a nearby
U.S. manned weather reporting activity.
In-port weather observing and reporting guard ship arrangements may be
used for groups of ships at the discretion of the senior officer present.
In such instances, the weather logs of exempted ships should bear a
notation of the guard ship(s) and effective dates/times. Additional and
special weather observations and reporting schedules that may be
required in support of fleet operations are issued in pertinent operation
plans and orders. Requirements for increased frequency of weather
reporting by ships at sea in specific areas, particularly in areas where
tropical disturbances are suspected or known to exist, should be issued
as necessary by the area or force commander.
All ships taking surface weather observations must use the form CNOC
3140/8. This form contains two code forms and is divided into two
sections, parts I and II.
Part I: Part I is the Ship Aviation Observation Code. This code is in
the aviation observation code format with additional ship and sea data
Part II: Part II is the Synoptic Code Message Format. It is
determined from analyzing data from part I. The data is transmitted via
radio message to the appropriate weather center.