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Figure 4-10.—Guide for supervising materials-handling crew.
Fleet  freight—Carefully  inspect  all  material received as fleet freight for evidence of damaged or   leaking   containers.   Extremely   hazardous conditions  can  result  from  several  compounds normally  used  aboard  ship. Open hatches—Guards should be placed near open hatches and other open spaces. Safety lines must be used around such openings when material is  not  being  handled  through  them. Temporarily    covered    hatches—Hatches covered only with a tarpaulin or other temporary covering  are  dangerous,  perhaps  more  so  than uncovered   hatches   that   are   fully   visible. Temporary coverings should be used only during inclement  weather,  if  at  all. Riding   on   hooks—Personnel   will   not   ride cargo-handling  gear,  such  as  hooks  or  nets, between pier and ship or between the deck and hold. The save-all must not be used as a ladder between the pier and the ship. The save-all is a cargo  net  or  device  used  to  prevent  the  loss  of material  over  the  side  during  loading  or  unloading operations. Removed   handrails—When   handrails   are removed  to  load  cargo  or  for  other  reasons,  the working   area   should   be   roped   off   to   prevent personnel  from  falling  over  the  side. Ladders—Ladders in the square of the hatch should not be used when cargo is being lowered or  hoisted  in  the  hold.  Much  care  must  be exercised when using these ladders, particularly when hatchboards from several decks have been removed.  Stairway-type  ladders  should  be  used when they are available. Slippery   decks—Oil,   grease,   ice,   or   any slippery material on the decks or pier should be removed  immediately  or  covered  with  sand, cinders,   sawdust,   or   other   suitable   antislip material. Improper lighting—When concealment is not important,  floodlights  should  be  provided  at  night on  the  weather  deck,  overside,  and  in  cargo  holds. Flashlights should be available for emergencies. When   entering   unlighted   compartments,   per- sonnel  should  carry  portable  safety  lights. Asphyxia   and   poisoning—During   some material  handling  or  related  operations,  asphyxia or  poisoning  may  result  from  a  lack  of  oxygen, poisonous  gases  or  fumes,  or  exposing  skin  or  eyes to  or  swallowing  petroleum  products.  (Some vapors may be swallowed without the knowledge of  the  victim.)  A  person  showing  signs  of  asphyxia or poisoning should receive immediate attention and  the  supervisor  must  be  notified.  The  space should  be  inspected  before  work  is  continued. SAFE   MATERIALS-HANDLING PRACTICES In  material  handling,  it  is  the  responsibility  of the supervisor of the operation to make sure all personnel  working  under  his  or  her  control  are instructed in and carry out safety precautions. To do   this   the   supervisor   must   have   a   working knowledge  of  the  safety  precautions  listed  in Navy  Safety  Precautions  for  Forces  Afloat, OPNAVINST  5100.19.  The  supervisors  must make sure all personnel have training in materials- handling  safety  in  the  following  areas: Safety   knowledge   and   training—Working personnel must be given instruction and training concerning  potential  dangers  associated  with  their tasks.  An  awareness  of  these  potential  dangers and  training  to  avoid  hazards  will  assist  in reducing  accidents  while  performing  tasks. Knowledge   of   hazardous   material—Some items such as flammable material, chemicals, acids and  so  forth,  obviously  require  more  care  and attention than other items. The characteristics of the material being stowed will dictate the care and attention  necessary  to  avoid  risks  and  potential hazards.  Personnel  handling  hazardous  materials must  have  a  knowledge  of  all  potential  dangers or  hazards  associated  with  those  materials. Design—Equipment  is  generally  designed  to perform  a  specific  function.  A  potential  hazard may be created when equipment is selected for use in  operations  beyond  the  rated  capacity  or  for other than the purpose for which it was designed. Attachments—Personnel  must  be  trained  in the  use  of  all  attachments  on  each  piece  of equipment  including  potential  hazards  associated with their use. Maintenance—Equipment   that   is   not   in proper operating condition constitutes a hazard. Operators   must   be   instructed   not   to   operate equipment   that   appears   to   be   mechanically 4-13

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