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Sanitary Practices
diseases, skin infections, and blood poisoning are caused  by  transferring  infectious  material  from one  person  to  another,  or  by  using  unsanitary tools. Dirty hands or fingernails are also sources of   contagion. Bacteria, commonly known as germs, are one- cell   microorganisms   found   nearly   everywhere. Bacteria  exist  on  the  skin,  water,  air,  decayed matter, in the secretion of body openings, on the clothing,  and  under  the  fingernails.  The  micro- organisms are normally not visible to the naked eye. Nonpathogenic   Bacteria There are hundreds of types of bacteria; they are classified into two groups. The first group is nonpathogenic,  which  is  harmless  bacteria  that constitutes  the  majority  of  all  bacteria. Pathogenic  Bacteria Although  pathogenic  bacteria  are  the  minority of  all  bacteria,  they  can  cause  considerable damage by attacking plant or human tissue. It is because  of  pathogenic  bacteria,  which  produce disease, that barbershop sanitation is necessary. This  group  of  bacteria  belongs  to  the  parasite family  which  requires  living  matter  to  grow. BACTERIAL  INFECTIONS There  are  basically  two  types  of  infections  that pathogenic  bacteria  can  cause,  local  infections  and general  infections.  A  local  infection  is  indicated by  a  boil  or  pimple  containing  pus.  A  general infection   results   when   bacteria   enter   the bloodstream. Control  of  bacterial  infections  can  only  be done  through  the  use  of  proper  sanitation practices. Although all bacteria cannot be killed, they  can  be  kept  inactive  or  harmless  through proper  sanitation. SANITIZING To  render  all  inactive  bacteria  harmless,  all barbering  tools  must  be  sanitized.  For  a  barber to   do   this,   the   following   necessary   sanitizing equipment  and  supplies  must  be  available: Chemical   disinfectants Wet   disinfectant   (jars   using   prescribed Navy  disinfecting  solutions) Disinfecting   cabinet CHEMICAL   DISINFECTANTS REPRODUCTION  OF  BACTERIA Bacteria  consist  of  a  cell  wall  and  internal protoplasm. Using the surrounding environment they   manufacture   their   own   food,   grow,   and reproduce.  During  the  bacteria’s  life  cycle,  they have  two  distinct  phases:  active  and  inactive. During the active stage they grow and reproduce. Bacteria multiply in dark, warm, damp, and dirty places  where  sufficient  food  is  present.  The bacterial  cell  absorbs  the  food,  grows  to  its capacity, and separates, producing two daughter cells.  One  cell  can  lead  to  the  reproduction  of millions of cells under favorable conditions. Once the area is sanitized and favorable conditions do not  exist,  the  cells  will  either  die  or  become inactive. These inactive cells can withstand periods of famine, dryness, and unsuitable temperatures by forming a tough outer shell. These inactive cells can  be  blown  around  in  the  dust  and  are  not affected   by   disinfectants,   heat,   or   cold.   Once conditions  are  favorable  again,  these  cells  will return  to  the  active  stage  and  reproduce. Chemical  disinfectants  are  germicidal  solu- tions or substances that eliminate or reduce the number  of  bacteria.  They  must  be  used  for adequate disinfection of barber instruments. The most commonly used chemical disinfectants in a barbershop  are  as  follows: Clippercide  Spray  4-in-1  Formula  (avail- able through the ship’s store contract bulletin) or an  equivalent  spray  that  disinfects,  lubricates, cleans,  cools,  and  is  approved  by  the  Environ- mental Protection Agency (EPA) and has an EPA registration  number—may  be  used  for  disinfecting removable   clipper   heads   and   other   metallic instruments. Alcohol   70   percent—may   be   used   for metallic  instruments  or  combs. Disinfectant,   germicide,   fungicide—a standard   stock   item   useful   for   disinfecting combs. 4-5

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