manufacturers instruction manual is furnished
for each laundry marking machine. The mechanic
who works on the machine should also have a
copy of this instruction book. Do not try to do
any mechanical work on the machine unless it is
absolutely necessary. Always request that the
work be done by a trained person from the
Ships Without Laundry Marking
All ships are required to have a laundry
marking machine on board. Ships laundries
temporarily without laundry marking machines
will have to use laundry marking pens while a
machine is being procured or the old one repaired.
The laundry supervisor should obtain white and
black laundry markers from the bulk storeroom
and charge them to cost of operations laundry.
These pens will serve the same purpose as the
laundry marking machine; however, they will
probably slow the work process while marking
clothing. For individual lots, the laundry mark
has to be handwritten on the Ships Store Laundry
List, NAVSUP Form 233. Care should be taken
while marking clothing with marking pens to
make sure the mark does not go completely
through the fabric. It is best to stencil on a
semifirm surface such as cardboard, making sure
you do not press too firmly. Be sure the ink from
the stencil is completely dry before placing the
clothing with the remainder of the lot.
The primary goal of the washing process is to
remove all soil from the fabrics being washed.
This is done through a series of baths in which
the soil is loosened from the fabric, suspended in
the water, and rinsed away. There are five baths
in the washing cyclethe breaksuds, the flush
suds, two rinse baths, and the sour bath. During
the first two baths, the two-shot detergent
(detergent/oxygen bleach) removes and loosens
the soil so it may be rinsed away.
Sour is used in the last rinse cycle to neutralize
alkalinity and to decompose any remaining traces
still in clothing.
The laundry personnel should be familiar with
the different kinds of fabrics. In general most
fabrics can be safely laundered in the ships
laundry without causing damage provided they
are resistant to the laundry chemicals used.
Therefore, it is a good laundry practice to first
determine what type of fabric you are washing
and take every precaution to prevent damage. It
is essential that all laundry personnel know the
different kinds of fabrics.
To minimize the effects of chemicals on
fabrics, classify all clothing according to color,
fiber content, and degree of soiling. Wash lightly
soiled articles separately from heavily soiled items
to minimize redeposition of soil on fabrics,
causing them to look gray/dull. Wash colored
fabrics separately from whites to avoid color
For maximum washing efficiency, do not
exceed load limits of equipment. In the case of
synthetics/blends, washer loads should not exceed
three-fourths of the rated capacity to provide for
maximum mechanical action, cleaning efficiency,
and to avoid wrinkling.
Never use hot flushes with supplies before the
first bath. In the case of synthetics or synthetic
blends, a hot flush with no supplies will soften
the fabric and allow soil to penetrate more deeply.
Synthetics or synthetic blends do not absorb
water, making rinsing easier. The final extract
should be consistent with the Navy wash formula.
Laundry chemicals should come in contact with
fabrics ONLY AFTER appropriate water levels
are achieved. The two-shot detergent mentioned
earlier is used in washing all shipboard clothing
and textile items, including synthetics and
synthetic blends, and no other washing chemical
should be used in place of them.
TYPES OF SOIL
In general there are four types of soils. Some
can be removed during the washing process and
some cannot. It is important that you know them
so you can decide whether they require special
CHEMICAL SOLUBLE SOILS
Chemical soluble soils are soluble or readily
dissolvable in chemical solvents. Soils of this type
include oils, greases, certain waxes, fatty acids
(which are mainly body oils), and vegetable,
mineral, and animal oils. These soils usually are
not soluble in water and may require special