Quantcast Table  6-3.—Chemicals  Used  in  Spotting—Continued

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Table  6-3.—Chemicals  Used  in  Spotting
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Table 6-4.—Spot and Stain Removal Chart
Table  6-3.—Chemicals  Used  in  Spotting—Continued Name Characteristics Uses Precautions Sodium  chloride White,   powdered   or   Helps   to   remove   blood   Safe  on  all  fabrics  if Common salt . . . granular  substance and fruit stains properly   rinsed.   Has setting action on direct dyes Sodium Clear, colorless, or   Bleach for vegetable and   Discolors   animal   fibers. hypochlorite . . . . slightly  yellow  liquid synthetic   fibers; to    Strong   solutions   will remove   blood,   blue injure vegetable fibers. stains,  grass  stains, Follow  treatment  with indelible  pencil,  mildew a  sour. and  molds,  medicine, and perspiration stains Sodium Whitish,  slightly  opaque,   To  remove  iodine  stains   Safe   on   all   fabrics   and thiosulfate. . . . . . crystalline substance dyes  if  rinsed  well  after using. 1, 1, 1-Trichloro- Colorless,   nonflammable   General   spotting   agent   Safe  on  all  fabrics.  If ethane (Methyl liquid for oil and grease stains warm,  may  bleed  cel- chloroform)  .  .  .  . lulose acetate dyes. by oil, solvent may remove the spot or stain. An indicates the presence of tannin. Wine and berry ink  spot  may  be  tested  as  follows: Add a drop of water to the ink spot. If the ink  bleeds  easily,  it  is  considered  to  be  water soluble. Add a drop of ammonia to the spot. More color  should  bleed  from  the  spot. Add  a  drop  of  acetic  acid  to  the  spot.  If no  more  color  bleeds,  then  remove  the  ink  spot by a water and ammonia process of bleeding and flushing  until  spot  is  completely  removed. If  water  does  not  bleed  the  ink  spot,  add dry solvent. If the ink bleeds, then the ink spot is  ball-point,  marking,  Mimeograph,  or  printing ink,  which  must  be  removed  on  the  dry  side. Continue   bleeding   and   flushing   until   spot   is removed. Chemical  tests—Litmus  paper  indicates  the presence  of  acid  or  alkali.  Tannin  can  be discovered  by  applying  a  drop  of  ammonia  to  a spot or stain and noting whether the color turns tan  or  brown.  The  change  to  tan  or  brown stains  are  distinguished  from  ink  stains  by  a discharge  of  color.  The  color  of  wine  and  berry stains will change from blue to red and back to blue with alternate applications of ammonia and acid. METHODS  USED  IN  SPOTTING The  spotter  removes  spots  and  stains  by  using one  or  more  of  four  following  methods:    Solution Emulsification    Chemical action    Mechanical action SOLUTION A solution is a mixture of two substances, the solvent  and  the  solute.  A  solution  occurs  when the  solute  is  dissolved  in  the  solvent.  The  most common  way  to  remove  soils  and  spots  from 6-26

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