Quantcast Table 6-4.—Spot and Stain Removal Chart

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Table  6-3.—Chemicals  Used  in  Spotting—Continued
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Table  6-4.—Spot  and  Stain  Removal  Chart—Continued - 14239_164
Table 6-4.—Spot and Stain Removal Chart GROUP NO. 1—Albuminous and Simple Food Stains Spot Appearance Removal  Steps Step  No.  1 (l) Food . . . . . . . . . . . . . Built  up,  dark,  turns  white   (A)  Dampen  area  with  water  or  steam. when  scratched (B)  Apply  neutral  lubricant  or  protein  type agent. (2) Starches . . . . . . . . . .    Built up (C)  Tamp  with  brush,  flush  with  water  or steam. (3) Perspiration . . . . . . .    Absorbed Step  No.  2 (4) Blood . . . . . . . . . . . .    Dull,  absorbed,  reddish (A)  Dampen  area  with  water  or  steam. brown (B)  Apply  ammonia  (WHITE  MATERIAL ONLY). (5) Mud . . . . . . . . . . . . .    Dull,   absorbed (C)   Tamp   with   brush,   flush   with   water or  steam. (6) Discharge . . . . . . . . .    Absorbed,   built   up,   dark or  white Step  No.  3 (A)  Dampen  area  with  water  or  steam. (7) Glue . . . . . . . . . . . . . Built up (B)  Apply  wet  spotter. (C)  Tamp  with  brush,  flush  with  water  or (8) Ice Cream . . . . . . . .    Dull,   absorbed steam. (9) Sweets . . . . . . . . . . . . Built  up,  dark  to Step  No.  4 white (A)  Dampen  area  with  water  or  steam. (B)  Apply  digest  powder. (C)  Leave  digester  on  stain  for  at  least 15 min. (D)  Flush  with  water  or  steam. fabrics is to dissolve them in solvents. In washing, called  emulsifiers.  In  dry  cleaning,  emulsifiers  are water is the chief solvent, while in dry cleaning, perchloroethylene  is  the  chief  solvent.  Most substances   will   dissolve   in   either   solvent mentioned above; however, many will not. These substances  can  be  removed  using  appropriate chemicals. Table 6-4 is a spot and stain removal chart that lists different types of spots and stains and the steps and procedures for removing them. The chemicals used in spot removal will mix with the substance to loosen it so it may be rinsed away. Any  clothing  articles  that  are  spotted  after  the wash  or  dry-cleaning  cycle  will  have  to  be  sent through   the   cycle   again   to   rinse   away   any chemicals still remaining in the article. This should be  done  before  you  dry  or  press  the  material. EMULSIFICATION Any  substances  that  help  the  solvent  in removing  stains  such  as  soap  or  detergent  are already  part  of  the  dry-cleaning  solvent;  however, in regular washing, emulsifiers should be added to the solvent (water) to assist it in efficient stain removal. CHEMICAL   ACTION In  chemical  action,  two  or  more  substances combine  to  produce  one  or  more  totally  new substances.  These  new  substances  are  normally very soluble and can be rinsed away easily. A good example of this is when you use an acid to remove an  alkaline  spot  or  use  an  alkali,  like  ammonia or  sodium  bicarbonate,  to  remove  an  acid  spot. When  you  do  this  the  two  substances  react chemically to forma soluble salt that can be rinsed out  of  the  fabric  easily. 6-27

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