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Use of Dunnage
Storekeeper 3 & 2 - Manual for watching over inventory and other things needed in a store
Figure 14-15.óRight and wrong ways to stack boxes.
Figure 14-12.—Dunnage used to fill space. EQUALIZES   PRESSURE—Figure   14-13 illustrates  how  dunnage  is  used  in  “flooring  off’  to distribute the weight of cargo in succeeding layers. CRIBBING—Cribbing consists of beams formed into a framework to provide support to heavy equipment or other material. PERMITS  DRAINAGE—When  laid  athwart- ships or fore and aft, according to the design of the ship, dunnage permits water to flow into the drainage system. PROVIDES    VENTILATION—When    laid athwartships or fore and aft, according to the design of the ship, dunnage provides circulation of air through the cargo. Figure 14-13.—Flooring off. BULKHEAD—Dunnage makes a good bulkhead against a tier of cargo. Since the bulkhead will provide considerable stability to the cargo, suitable bracing must be  installed. CHOCKING AND BRACING—Dunnage can be used to chock and brace heavy machinery and crates to prevent  shifting.  Dunnage  serves  a  useful  purpose  in stowing  cargo,  but  it  can  also  damage  cargo.  For example, wet dunnage in the hold of a ship produces excessive   moisture   that   may   damage   the   cargo. Oil-stained   or   dirty   dunnage   can   contaminate foodstuffs. It is a good practice never to reuse dunnage until it has been inspected, washed and dried as needed, and  sorted  for  specific  purposes. There  is  no  definite  set  of  rules  governing  the  use of  dunnage.  When  using  it,  you  should  also  use  thought and common sense. Bagged Material Many  commodities  are  packaged  in  burlap  or  paper bags.  Bagged  cargo  must  be  stowed  so  that  it  will  not be damaged by moisture. Dunnage should be used to prevent it from touching stanchions, beams, or other structures that could cut or tear the bag. Several ways of stacking bags are shown in figure 14-14. Alternating the bags such as shown in view A makes  a  more  secure  stack.  The  method  in  view  B provides more ventilation for material that requires it. View C shows how dunnage may be used to tie together the stacks, making them more secure and also providing increased ventilation. Stacking as shown in view D permits more bags to be stowed in a given space but ventilation  is  greatly  reduced. Cases  and  Cartons Generally,  cargo  consists  of  an  assortment  of wooden and fiberboard boxes and cases constructed in various sizes and shapes, and which may or may not be palletized. Careful planning is necessary when you are stowing such cargo. Skill is also necessary in placing dunnage. The largest and heaviest cases should be stowed in the lower holds, and the smaller boxes should be placed between and around them. This protects the smaller and lighter cartons and helps to keep the tiers level.  Also  less  dunnage  is  required.  Figure  14-15 shows  another  example  of  using  dunnage  to  floor  off, to distribute the weight of a second level of material evenly over the first. Using dunnage in this manner is particularly  important  when  stowing  containers  of unequal  size  and  weight. 14-19

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