electricians, but there are no old, bold electricians
applies equally well to cargo handling. When
individuals develop poor attitudes toward their work, a
change must be made. Either in attitudes or in work
assignments. If previous experience indicates that a
person has a tendency toward unreliability, that person
should not be permitted to operate materials-handling
equipment nor work in a position where the individuals
unreliability could result in injury. Of course, the cause
of unreliability should be determined and eliminated, if
Many types of accidents can happen when handling
cargo. Some of the danger areas and causes of accidents
are discussed below:
Defective EquipmentDefective equipment
such as winches, rigging, chains, nets, and
bridles should not be used. Report their
condition to your superior. Repairs should be
made only by qualified personnel since a poor
repair job may constitute a worse hazard than the
Thrown ObjectsObjects such as blocks,
crowbars, and slings should not be thrown from
the deck into the hold or onto the pier.
Improperly Assembled DraftsNets and pallets
should be so loaded that items will not fall during
Failure to Stand ClearThe warning STAND
CLEAR! should be given when cargo or hoisting
gear is being lowered into a hold or onto the pier.
Cargo Improperly Landed-Cargo should be
guided to a safe landing after being stopped
about 1 foot above the intended landing area.
Loads Stopped OverheadThe stopping of
loads overhead should be avoided If a hoisted
load must be stopped before being lowered into
the hold, it should be stopped over the weather
deck-never over the square of the hatch nor
over the heads of personnel on the pier.
Improper StowageWhen stowed, cargo
should be tiered, tied in, stepped back, or floored
off to prevent collapse. Dunnage should be used
as a firm flooring for tiering. Never stow cargo,
even temporarily, in a halfway manner.
Hatch Beans or BeadsWhen only part of a
cargo hatch is open, remaining hatch beans
should be pinned or locked in place to prevent
them from being dislodged and falling on
Hatch boards should be
stacked well back from the hatch to prevent them
from being accidentally knocked into the hold.
Standing in Bight of LineIndividuals should
not stand with their feet in the bight of a line or
in the eye of a cargo strip or sling. To do so may
result in broken bones or even more serious
Fires and ExplosionsFires and explosions
may be caused by: (1) explosive vapor, (2)
spilled flammables or explosives, (3) ignition
source such as smoking, hot work, open fires,
electrical equipment, naked lights, and sparks
from tools, (4) heat, (5) spontaneous ignition, (6)
water causing chemical reaction with certain
substances, (7) improper handling, and (8)
Fire is a potential danger with almost all types of
cargo. The possibility of fire or explosion is greatly
increased when cargo operations involve flammables
and ammunition. However, extra precautions are
normally taken when these dangerous materials are
handled. Probably most fires occur in ordinary
combustible material (paper, rags, wood, etc.).
Since the fire hazard is not as great when handling
these materials fewer precautions are usually taken and
cargo handlers are apt to become careless.
Fleet FreightCarefully inspect all material
received as fleet freight for evidence of damaged
or leaking containers. Extremely hazardous
conditions can result from several compounds
normally used aboard ship.
Open HatchesGuards should be placed near
open hatches and other open spaces. Safety lines
must be used around such openings when cargo
is not being handled through them.
Temporarily Covered HatchesHatches
covered only with a tarpaulin or other temporary
covering are dangerous, perhaps more so than
uncovered hatches, which are fully visible.
temporary coverings should be used only
during inclement weather, if at all.
Riding on HooksPersonnel should not be
permitted to ride cargo-handling gear, such as
hooks or nets, between pier and ship or between
the deck and hold. The save-all must not be used
as a ladder between the pier and the ship.