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Causes of Accidents
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Storekeeper 3 & 2 - Manual for watching over inventory and other things needed in a store
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Figure 13-31.-Manual lifting.
electricians,  but  there  are  no  old,  bold  electricians applies   equally   well   to   cargo   handling.   When individuals  develop  poor  attitudes  toward  their  work,  a change must be made. Either in attitudes or in work assignments. If previous experience indicates that a person  has  a  tendency  toward  unreliability,  that  person should not be permitted to operate materials-handling equipment nor work in a position where the individual’s unreliability  could  result  in  injury.  Of  course,  the  cause of  unreliability  should  be  determined  and  eliminated,  if possible. DANGER  AREAS Many  types  of  accidents  can  happen  when  handling cargo. Some of the danger areas and causes of accidents are  discussed  below: Defective   Equipment—Defective   equipment such  as  winches,  rigging,  chains,  nets,  and bridles   should   not   be   used.   Report   their condition to your superior. Repairs should be made only by qualified personnel since a poor repair job may constitute a worse hazard than the defective  equipment. Thrown   Objects—Objects  such  as  blocks, crowbars, and slings should not be thrown from the deck into the hold or onto the pier. Improperly  Assembled  Drafts—Nets  and  pallets should be so loaded that items will not fall during hoisting. Failure to Stand Clear—The warning STAND CLEAR! should be given when cargo or hoisting gear is being lowered into a hold or onto the pier. Cargo  Improperly  Landed-Cargo  should  be guided to a safe landing after being stopped about  1  foot  above  the  intended  landing  area. Loads   Stopped   Overhead—The   stopping   of loads overhead should be avoided If a hoisted load  must  be  stopped  before  being  lowered  into the hold, it should be stopped over the weather deck-never  over  the  square  of  the  hatch  nor over  the  heads  of  personnel  on  the  pier. Improper   Stowage—When   stowed,   cargo should be tiered, tied in, stepped back, or floored off to prevent collapse. Dunnage should be used as a firm flooring for tiering. Never stow cargo, even temporarily, in a halfway manner. Hatch Beans or Beads—When only part of a cargo  hatch  is  open,  remaining  hatch  beans should  be  pinned  or  locked  in  place  to  prevent them   from   being   dislodged   and   falling   on personnel   below. Hatch  boards  should  be stacked well back from the hatch to prevent them from  being  accidentally  knocked  into  the  hold. Standing  in  Bight  of  Line—Individuals  should not stand with their feet in the bight of a line or in the eye of a cargo strip or sling. To do so may result  in  broken  bones  or  even  more  serious injury. Fires  and  Explosions—Fires  and  explosions may  be  caused  by:  (1)  explosive  vapor,  (2) spilled flammables or explosives, (3) ignition source such as smoking, hot work, open fires, electrical  equipment,  naked  lights,  and  sparks from  tools,  (4)  heat,  (5)  spontaneous  ignition,  (6) water causing chemical reaction with certain substances,  (7)  improper  handling,  and  (8) inadequate sentries. Fire  is  a  potential  danger  with  almost  all  types  of cargo.  The  possibility  of  fire  or  explosion  is  greatly increased when cargo operations involve flammables and  ammunition.  However,  extra  precautions  are normally taken when these dangerous materials are handled.  Probably  most  fires  occur  in  ordinary combustible material (paper, rags, wood, etc.). Since the fire hazard is not as great when handling these materials fewer precautions are usually taken and cargo handlers are apt to become careless. Fleet Freight—Carefully inspect all material received  as  fleet  freight  for  evidence  of  damaged or  leaking  containers.  Extremely  hazardous conditions can result from several compounds normally  used  aboard  ship. Open  Hatches—Guards  should  be  placed  near open hatches and other open spaces. Safety lines must be used around such openings when cargo is  not  being  handled  through  them. Temporarily   Covered   Hatches—Hatches covered only with a tarpaulin or other temporary covering  are  dangerous,  perhaps  more  so  than uncovered  hatches,  which  are  fully  visible. temporary   coverings   should   be   used   only during inclement weather, if at all. Riding  on  Hooks—Personnel  should  not  be permitted  to  ride  cargo-handling  gear,  such  as hooks or nets, between pier and ship or between the deck and hold. The save-all must not be used as a ladder between the pier and the ship. 13-16

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