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Figure 13-14.óBest way to load a pallet.
chain may be used depending on the weight of material to be lifted. Slings  have  rigid  horizontal  supports  at  the  base. Usually made of steel bars or pipes that must be of sufficient strength to distribute the load across the entire length. Some slings have movable spreader bars at the top to prevent the load from being crushed when lifted. PALLETS A pallet is a wooden, steel, or aluminum platform on which supplies are loaded, transported, or stored in units. Use of pallets permits handling the material with forklift   trucks,   cranes,   and   other   transporting equipment. The standard pallet is a 40- by 48-inch platform that accommodates   most   packages   and   stores   in warehouses.  It  is  regarded  as  the  general-purpose pallet. General-purpose pallets maybe either the flat type or box type. Flat Pallets may be single-faced or double-faced.  Single-faced  pallets  (figure  13-11)  have one platform nailed or bolted to stringers, usually made of  2-  by  4-inch  material.  A  double-faced  pallet  (figure 13-10) has platforms on the top and the bottom of the stringers   and   is   excellent   for   stevedoring   and transit-shed  operations. The  box-type  pallet,  illustrated  in  figure  13-12,  is used  for  handling  small-lot  items  or  easily  crushed Figure  13-12.—Box pallet. cargo. When discharging items from a ship to a transit shed,   loading   directly   into   a   box   pallet   saves considerable time and labor. Nestable sheet metal pallets are convenient for three reasons  (1)  the  maintenance  cost  is  low,  (2)  they  save storage space, and (3) you have no problem keeping them  sanitary.  Figure  13-13  shows  a  few  single-faced pallets stowed alongside a stack of sheet-metal pallets. As   you   can   see,   the   saving   in   storage   space   is tremendous. Lightweight aluminum pallets also are used, but are expensive and difficult to repair. In addition to the standard pallet there is a 48- by 72-inch stevedoring pallet, which is used primarily for transporting and storing drummed products and for stevedoring    purposes. Pallet   construction   and illustrations on the stevedore pallet can be found in NAVSUP P-284-1. Loading  Pallets When  a  pallet  is  loaded,  three  things  must  be Figure 13-11.—Pallet, x 48-inches, four-way entry: Partial stringers (B) Post canstruction. (A) considered: (1) maximum load, (2) stability, and (3) proper pallet size. The pallet must pass through all doors,  aisles,  and  hatches  likely  to  be  encountered.  The stability of the material on the pallet must be considered and a decision made as to the type of pallet to use. Figure 13-14 shows the recommended way to load material on a pallet. The size of the boxes being loaded will  determine  their  arrangement  on  the  pallet.  A standard loading pattern is not always appropriate. 13-5

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