By direction of the (senior officials
title), if appropriate
REFERENCES AND ENCLOSURES
The business letter does not provide for a
mentioned in the text only. Enclosures
both mentioned in the text and then described
briefly in an Enclosure block. Type Encl: at
the left margin on the second line below the
Signature block and list the enclosures beneath
the heading. The rules for marking special
distribution of enclosures are the same as in a
COPY TO BLOCK
If everyone should know that a particular
addressee will receive an information copy,
show that addressee in the Copy to block.
Use long titles for activities listed in the
SNDL. Type the words Copy to with a colon
at the left margin on the second line below
the previous block (Enclosure block, if any, or
the Signature block). Addressees are listed
beginning on the next line at the left margin.
This portion of the chapter will introduce you
to basic message traffic format (MTF).
Although there are many types and modes of
communications, the basic naval message must
conform to a standard format with few
exceptions. As a YN, you need to be familiar
with all of them.
COMMON MESSAGE ELEMENTS
Before covering the basic format of military
messages, we will first discuss the time
speed-of-service objectives used in naval
Time is one of the most important
elements in communications. Messages are
normally identified and filed by either a DTG
or a Julian date, depending on the method of
The DTG is assigned for identification and
file purposes only. The DTG consists of six
digits. The first two digits represent the date,
the second two digits represent the hour, and
the third two digits represent the minutes. For
example, 221327Z AUG 94 means the 22nd
day of August plus the time in Greenwich
mean time (GMT). The dates from the first to
the ninth of the month are preceded by a zero.
This designation is followed by a zone
suffix and the month and year. The month is
expressed by its first three letters and the year,
by the last two digits of year of origin; for
example, 081050Z AUG 94. The zone suffix
ZULU (Z), for GMT, is used as the universal
time for all messages.
Greenwich Mean Time
In naval communications, the DTG is
f r o m a c o m m o n w o r l d w i de
standard. To meet the need for worldwide
time standardization, the international GMT
system was developed. The GMT system uses
a 24-hour clock instead of the two 12-hour
cycles used in the normal civilian world.
The Julian date consists of three digits.
They represent the day of the year. The first
day of the calendar year is Julian 001, and
each day is numbered consecutively thereafter.
For example, in Julian 0311315, 031 is the
31st day of the calendar year (January 31).