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Page Title: Offenses Punishable Under Article 15, UCMJ
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Imposition of NJP on Reservists
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Report and Disposition of Offense(s)
passage   or   assigned   or   attached   to   an embarked   staff,   unit,   detachment,   squadron, team,  air  group,  or  other  regularly  organized body. The   key   time factor   in   determining whether   or   not   a   person   has   the   right   to demand  trial  by  court-martial  is  the  time  of the  imposition  of  the  NJP  and  not  the  time  of the  commission  of  the  offense.  There  is  no power  for  a  CO  or  an  OIC  to a  civilian. OFFENSES   PUNISHABLE ARTICLE   15,   UCMJ impose  NJP  on UNDER Article  15  gives  a  CO  power  to  punish individuals   for   minor   offenses. The  term minor  offense   has  been  the  cause  of  some concern  in  the  administration  of  NJP. Article  15,  UCMJ,  and  part  V,  par.  1e, MCM,  say  that  the  term  minor  offense  means misconduct  normally  not  more  serious  than that   usually h a n d l e d    a t    a    s u m m a ry court-martial   (SCM)   (where   the   maximum punishment   is   30   days’   confinement).   These sources  also  say  that  the  nature  of  the  offense and   the   circumstances surrounding its commission  are  also  factors  that  should  be considered  in  determining  whether  an  offense is  minor  in  nature. The term  minor offense  ordinarily  does  not include  misconduct  that,  if  tried  by  a  general court-martial  (GCM),  could  be  punished  by  a dishonorable   discharge   (DD)   or   confinement for  more  than  1  year.  The  Navy  and  Marine Corps,  however,  have  taken  the  position  that the  final  determination  of  whether  an  offense is  minor  is  within  the  sound  discretion  of  the CO. Cases Previously Tried in Civil Court Sections     0108b     and     0124c(2)     of     the JAGMAN  permit  the  use  of  NJP  to  punish  an accused  for  an  offense  that  he  or  she  has  been (1)  tried  (whether  acquitted  or  convicted)  by a  domestic  or  foreign  civilian  court,  (2) diverted   out   of   the   regular   criminal   process for  a  probationary  period,  or  (3)  adjudicated by  juvenile  court  authorities.  This  is  true  only if  authority  is  obtained  from  the  OEGCMJ (usually   the   general   or   flag   officer   in command  over  the  command  desiring  to impose  NJP). NJP  may  not  be  imposed  for  an  act  tried by  a  court  that  derives  its  authority  from  the United  States,  such  as  a  federal  district  court. Cases  in  which  a  finding  of  guilt  or innocence  has  been  reached  in  a  trial  by court-martial  cannot  be  taken  to  NJP. Off-Base  Offenses COs   and   OICs   may   dispose   of   minor disciplinary  infractions  that  occur  on  base  or off  base  at  NJP.  Unless  the  off-base  offense is   a   traffic   offense   or   one   previously adjudicated  by  civilian  authorities,  there  is  no limit  on  the  authority  of  military  commanders to  resolve  such  offenses  at  NJP. In   areas   not   under   military   control,   the responsibility  for  maintaining  law  and  order rests  with  civil  authority.  The  enforcement  of traffic  laws  falls  within  the  purview  of  this principle.   Off-duty,   off-installation   driving offenses,  however,  show  inability  and  lack  of safety consciousness. Such   driving performance   does   not   prevent   the   use   of nonpunitive   measures   that   could   include denial  of  on-installation  driving  privileges. THE  NJP  PACKAGE The  NJP  package,  as  we  will  refer  to  it, includes   numerous   documents   and   forms along  with  any  evidence  on  the  case.  As  we will  discuss,  strict  compliance  with  filling  out the  forms  is  essential  to  a  proper  NJP proceeding. 9-4

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