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Summary - 14300_18
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Navy Instructional Theory - Military manual for teaching in the military
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Professional Receipt
CHAPTER 2 THE NAVY INSTRUCTOR INTRODUCTION Teaching  has  been  described  as  both  an  art  and  a  science.  The  science  of  teaching  helps  to explain   what   must   be   done.   It   is   concerned   with   the   why   and   how   of   instruction.   The   science of   teaching   helps   the   new   instructor   understand   the   techniques   and   acquire   the   knowledge required  to  do  the  job.  That  is  why  Navy  instructor  training  includes  subjects  on  the  principles of   learning,   motivation,   communication,   instructional   methods,   objectives,   testing,   and   the   ways people  learn,  among  other  topics.  That  is  also  why  instructor  training  includes  a  lot  of  practice teaching   and   teaching-performance   examinations. These   specific   parts   of   the   training   are designed  to  help  the  beginning  instructor  grasp  the  basic  techniques  of  instruction. Once   beginning   instructors   learn   to   use   these   techniques,   they   can   start   to   learn   the   art   of instruction. As   with   any   art,   some   artists   (instructors)   will   be   more   effective   than   others. Efficient  instructors  know  and  follow  all  the  rules  and  techniques  of  teaching.  However, effective  instructors  are  often  those  who  seize  every  opportunity  to  enhance  the  learning experience  by  being  more  creative  in  their  use  of  the  rules  and  techniques.  Before  you  can  do that,   though,   you   must   know   the   rules   and   when   you   may   appropriately   deviate   from   them. The  art  of  instruction  really  cannot  be  taught.  You  develop  it  through  experience  and learning   what   works.   The   science   of   instruction   can   be   taught.   Therefore,   the   more   you   know and  understand  about  the  science  of  teaching,  the  better  equipped  you  will  be  to  develop  the  art. Although  almost  anyone  can  become  a  competent  instructor,  some  people  will  develop  into  truly superior  instructors.  The  starting  place,  however,  is  the  same  for  all  of  us--with  the  basics. In  his  text,  Instructional   Technique,   Davies  discusses  the  concepts  of  efficiency  and effectiveness   (Ivor   K.   Davies,   Instructional   Technique   [New   York:   McGraw-Hill   Publishing Company,   1981],   22).   According   to   Davies,   efficiency   is   concerned   with   doing   things   right   while effectiveness   is   doing   the   right   things. Most  of  us  easily  recognize  efficient  instructors.  They  do  things  right.  They  plan  their  lesson, prepare   the   learning   environment,   conduct   proper   lesson   introductions,   ask   questions,   and   use instructional  media  material.  That,  however,  does  not  ensure  they  are  effective.  Effectiveness in  instruction  is  much  more  than  just  doing  things  right;  it  is  a  measure  of  the  outcome  of learning.   It   is   what   students   can   do,   as   a   result   of   instruction,   to   demonstrate   they   have   met the  objectives  of  the  course. Ideally,   your   instruction   will   be   both   efficient   and   effective.   Through   study   and   experience, you   can   learn   to   do   the   right   things   right. This   chapter   presents   information   on   the characteristics  or  traits  instructors  should  have  as  well  as  information  on  the  duties, responsibilities,   and   concerns   common   to   Navy   instructors. 7

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