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Reasons for Forgetting - 14300_42
As  you  attempt  to  incorporate  student  experiences  into  course  material,  be  aware  that  males and  females  tend  to  have  very  different  experiences  in  the  math/science  areas.  Girls  more  often opt   for   science   courses   such   as   advanced   biology,   while   boys   will   take   advanced   chemistry   and physics.  Boys  have  more  out-of-school,  science-related  experiences  than  girls.  This  gap  in experience   continues   in   school,   where   one   study   showed   that   79   percent   of   all   student-assisted science  demonstrations  were  carried  out  by  boys.  Boys  drop  out  of  math  and  science  courses because   they   cannot   do   the   work,   while   girls   abandon   these   fields   even   when   they   are performing   well. Using  the  experiences  and  backgrounds  of  students  will  inject  a  note  of  realism  into  training. By  being  aware  of  the  gender  equity  issue,  you  will  be  able  to  avoid  the  traps  of  perpetuating gender  bias  in  the  examples  you  use  in  class. You  will  also  see  differences  in  the  attitudes  students  bring  into  the  classroom.  They  will  have many  different  reasons  for  attending  the  class.  Some  will  be  in  the  class  because  they  want  to be--for  all  the  right  reasons.  Others  will  only  be  in  the  class  because  they  have  to  be,  and  they will   resent   it.   Some   might   be   indifferent,   just   marking   time.   Attitudes   undoubtedly   affect performance  since  they  indicate  how  students  feel  about  learning  at  a  particular  time.  You  must detect  the  individual  motivation  levels  indicated  by  attitudes  so  that  you  can  channel  students’ efforts   toward   success. LEARNING   STYLES Just  as  students  have  different  ways  of  learning  new  material,  they  also  have  different  styles of   learning.   One   person’s   learning   style   may   not   be   effective   for   another   person.   You   must   be flexible  and  perceptive  enough  to  use  various  teaching  techniques  that  appeal  to  more  than  one learning  style. That   increases   the   chances   for   all   students   to   master   the   objectives   of   the training.  You  especially  need  to  know  a  student’s  learning  style  when  you  must  provide remediation   or   tutoring   for   a   student   having   academic   problems.   Most   people   have   a   preferred or  dominant  style  of  learning,  but  use  all  of  the  basic  learning  styles  to  some  extent  depending upon  the  situation.    As  an  instructor,  you  need  to  be  aware  of  the  four  basic  learning  styles: concrete,   active,   reflective,   and   abstract. Concrete   learners   prefer  an  experience-based  approach  to  learning.  They  rely  heavily  on  their own  feelings  and  personal  judgments.  Personal  involvement  is  the  key  for  them.  They  learn best  by  imitation  after  watching  others  take  part  in  role  playing  and  simulations.  They  very much  like  to  be  involved  with  the  “real  thing.”   For   example,   suppose   you   were   trying   to   teach your   students   how   to   operate   a   fire   pump. Concrete  learners  would  prefer  to  watch  you demonstrate   the   operation.   They   could   then   operate   the   pump   by   imitating   your   performance. Active  learners   prefer   to   learn   by   becoming   involved   with   the   subject   and   taking   an   active step-by-step   approach.   They   learn   best   from   small   group   discussions,   structured   exercises,   and problem-solving   approaches.   Active   learners   are   experimenters   who   prefer   to   systematically   try out  new  skills.  A  trial-and-error  way  of  learning  appeals  to  them.  To  operate  the  fire  pump, active  learners  would  systematically  try  out  several  different  ways  of  operation. Reflective   learners   like  to  observe  and  reflect  (make  comparisons  and  contrasts)  before 29

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