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Chapter 8 Testing - 14300_84
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Alternative    Construction
examples   of   recall   test   items.   Always   test   recall   with   closed   book   tests,   otherwise   you   are   not testing  the  students’  ability  to  remember  information. Comprehension. Comprehension   is   understanding   what   was   taught   rather   than   simply memorizing  the  words. It   can   be   demonstrated   by   interpreting,   explaining,   translating,   or summarizing   information.   When   measuring   the   students’   understanding   of   an   objective,   you must  avoid  the  use  of  verbatim  recall  or  recognition  types  of  items.  Comprehension  requires you  to  paraphrase  the  material  presented  in  the  item  rather  than  taking  it  word  for  word  from the  text.  Asking  a  student  to  explain  how  a  device  works  is  an  example  of  a  comprehension item. Application. Application  involves  the  ability  to  use  acquired  knowledge  in  a  job-related situation.   Application   questions   require   students   to   demonstrate   knowledge   through   mental   skill exercises  such  as  solving  a  computational  problem  or  determining  resistance  values  from  circuit diagrams.   You   must   use   different   problems   or   circuits   from   the   ones   you   used   in   class   to develop   application   questions. Analysis/Evaluation. Analysis   involves   the   understanding   of   the   elements   of   data   and relationships   among   the   data   that   make   the   meaning   of   information   explicit.   Evaluation involves  the  judgment  of  the  value  or  the  effectiveness  of  procedures  or  solutions  based  on  data, criteria,  and  standards.  For  example,  consider  a  question  that  asks  the  student  to  select  the  best approach   to   meet   a   stated   objective. The  question  would  require  the  student  to  know  or determine   which   options   would   meet   the   objective   (analysis)   and   which   single   option   would   be best   (evaluation). In  developing  knowledge  test  items,  focus  on  the  learning  level  being  tested  and  write  the  test items  to  that  level.  You  may  use  five  types  of  knowledge  test  items:  multiple-choice,  true-false, matching,   completion,   and   essay. MULTIPLE-CHOICE   TEST   ITEM   DEVELOPMENT The  multiple-choice  item  is  the  most  versatile  of  the  five  types  of  test  items.  Use  it  to  test  all levels  of  knowledge  except  recall.  The  multiple-choice  test  item  consists  of  (1)  a  stem  containing the   problem   statement   and   (2)   a   list   of   possible   answers   (alternatives). Typically,  this  type  of  test  item  contains  four  alternatives;  however,  depending  on  the  nature of  the  content  being  tested,  you  can  use  more  or  less  than  four.  Make  one  of  the  alternatives the  correct  answer  to  the  test  item  and  all  of  the  others  plausible  alternatives. The   following   sections   present   guidelines   for   stem   construction,   alternative   construction,   test item  forms  and  formats,  and  common  errors  in  item  construction. Stem   Construction A  cardinal  rule  in  test  item  development  is  to  communicate  effectively.  Use  the  following guidelines   as   a   checklist   to   make   sure   you   properly   write   multiple-choice   test   item   stems: n   Include   all   information,   conditions,   assumptions,   and   details   required   for   the   students   to correctly   answer   the   question   without   requiring   them   to   refer   to   the   alternatives. 73

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