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Figure  5-3.-Five  step  questioning  technique.
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Summary - 14300_63
demands   a   careful   and   quick   mental   evaluation   of   the   answer   for   accuracy   and   completeness. Provide  feedback  to  the  responder  and  class  on  the  quality  of  the  answer.  When  a  student  gives an  incorrect  answer,  be  critical  only  of  the  answer  and  not  the  student.  Be  sure  to  provide positive  reinforcement  for  correct  answers.  The  strength  of  the  reinforcement  depends  on  the difficulty  of  the  question  asked  and  the  relative  difficulty  level  for  the  student  selected.  Do  not overdo   the   reinforcement.   A   simple   “correct”   or   “thank   you”   may   suffice. The  fifth  and  last  step  in  the  process,  which  is  optional,  is  to   emphasize   or   repeat   the answer  given.  Avoid  the  tendency  to  repeat  each  answer  as  that  has  the  effect  of  diminishing the  student’s  response.  Remember  that  the  student’s  answer  has  an  importance  for  the  class  as well  as  for  you.  Insist  that  answers  be  clearly  spoken;  heard  by  all;  phrased  intelligibly;  and  if possible,  stated  in  the  terminology  of  the  lesson. Other   Questioning   Techniques The  following  techniques  may  be  used  in  addition  to  or  in  conjunction  with  the  five  step questioning    technique. n    Focus  on  the  non-volunteer  students;  avoid  eye  contact  with  the  active  participants when  asking  a  question.  This  will  encourage  the  quieter  students  to  reply.  Assign  a question   to   a   student   who   does   not   have   a   hand   raised;   then   provide   appropriate recognition   for   that   student’s   contribution. This   technique   will   increase   class involvement,   attention,   and   participation   because   all   students   will   know   you   may   call on   them   regardless   of   whether   they   volunteer. 9    Sometimes  you  may  need  to  prompt  a  student  who  has  given  a  weak,  incorrect,  or  an  “I don’t  know”  response  to  your  question.  Help  the  student  to  arrive  at  a  correct  answer  by asking   questions   that   contain   direct   hints   or   clues   to   the   correct   answer.   The   key   to effective  prompting  is  to  begin  on  a  simple  enough  level  that  the  student  can  relate  to  the material.   The   questions   in   the   prompting   sequence   depend   on   the   student’s   previous response. To   begin   the   sequence,   refer   to   material   the   student   already   knows. If   the   initial   student   response   was   partially   correct,   provide   reinforcement   by   telling   the student  what  was  right.  Then  ask  prompting  questions  until  the  student  can  give  the entire   correct   response. If  the  student’s  first  answer  is  “I  don’t  know,”  rephrase  the question  or  provide  an  example  to  eliminate  any  confusion,  ambiguity,  or  vagueness  in the  original  question. Acknowledge  the  final  correct  student  response  in  the  same  manner  as  if  the  student  had given  the  correct  response  the  first  time.  Do  not  allow  the  prompting  technique  to  result in  student  badgering. n    Seek  further  clarification  when  a  student  gives  a  response  that  is  poorly  organized,  lacking in   detail,   or   incomplete.   Do   not   provide   the   student   with   any   hints   (prompts),   clues,   or additional   information,   but   ask   the   student   to   do   so.   Request   clarification   when   you believe  the  student  has  guessed  at  an  answer  by  asking  the  student  to  justify  the  answer. Example: “What  else  can  you  add?” n    Use  the  reverse  technique  (answering  a  question  with  a  question)  to  get  students  to  think, 50

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