They learn best from lectures, films, and reading. Reflective learners
prefer to play the role of the impartial observer while watching others. To operate the fire
pump, reflective learners would watch others operate the pump and reflect (think) about the
different ways of operation. They would then analyze their observations before attempting to
operate the pump themselves.
Abstract learners refer a theory-based, analytical approach to learning. They learn best from
lectures by experts, theoretical reading, case studies, and activities that require solitary thinking.
Abstract learners like to find the theory behind the subject matter and analyze the approach
to discover what concepts are involved. In operating the fire pump, they would prefer to read
about its principles of operation and to analyze the concepts involved in its operation before
attempting to operate it.
Research has shown that students learn best and retain information longer when they are
exposed to learning situations that include all four learning styles. That research found that
group retention of information improved dramatically when instruction employed methods
designed to involve more than one learning style. This is shown by the following percentages:
m Abstract = 20% retained
H Abstract and reflective = 50% retained
n Abstract, reflective, and concrete = 70% retained
n Abstract, reflective, concrete, and active = 90% retained
REASONS FOR FORGETTING
You can easily understand the problem of forgetting, since we all forget at times. However,
as an instructor, you need to know how you can help decrease the forgetfulness of your
One of the most common causes of forgetting is disuse. People tend to forget what they dont
use. What we forget with ease is factual information.
Thats why we write down telephone
numbers. People have both long- and short-term memories. For example, short order cooks
who receive verbal orders from waiters and waitresses place those orders in short-term memory
and as they till the orders, forgets them.
So, too, we forget the telephone numbers we just
looked up a short time ago. However, factual information important to daily functioning goes
into our long-term memory, so we usually retain it.
Data in that category includes Social
Security numbers, personal identification numbers for bank cards, frequently called telephone
numbers, certain addresses, and so forth.
Since your students wont remember factual information very long, plan their learning around
conceptual bases. Give students a concept and the knowledge of how to research and retrieve
facts about that concept and you give them permanent learning. Concentrate on concept
building by reviewing frequently, providing examples, and providing time for students to
practice what they are learning.
Another cause of forgetting is interference.
Interference occurs when the memory of one