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Chapter 4 Principles of Learning - 14300_33
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Navy Instructional Theory - Military manual for teaching in the military
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Laws of Learning - 14300_35
always  strive  to  set  the  proper  example  because  you  are  the  role  model.  Additionally,  you  need to  provide  positive  reinforcement  to  students  for  properly  imitated  behavior. TRIAL   AND   ERROR Sometimes  referred  to  as  discovery  learning,  trial  and  error  is  learning  by  doing.  Students  can achieve   success   sooner   if   you   set   a   proper   example   for   them   to   imitate.   A   proper   example reduces  the  number  of  errors  students  make  and  thus  helps  to  develop  their  self-confidence. Although  the  mastering  of  most  skills  requires  this  way  of  learning  to  some  degree,  it  does involve   some   hazards.   Think   back   to   when   you   learned   how   to   ride   a   bicycle   to   help   you visualize  some  of  the  hazards  of  this  way  of  learning.  It  can  be  dangerous  to  the  students  and the  equipment.  It  can  also  become  frustrating  if  repeated  trials  don’t  lead  to  some  success.  The Navy   Instructor   Training   School   is   a   good   example   of   where   this   way   of   learning   is   currently used  as  students  present  lessons  during  performance  exams.  Students  receive  proper  supervision, reinforcement   of   acceptable   performance,   and   get   immediate   feedback   on   how   to   correct   errors. ASSOCIATION Association   is   a   comparison   of   past   learning   to   a   new   learning   situation.   It   is   a   mental process  that  serves  as  a  reference  point  for  students.  Learners  can  confront  new  problems  more easily   if   those   new   problems   contain   elements   similar   to   those   previously   mastered.   For example,  to  help  students  more  easily  understand  electricity  flowing  in  a  circuit,  you  might compare   it   to   water   flowing   through   a   pipe. Use   comparisons,   contrasts,   and   examples   to reinforce   your   explanations. Although   you   will   have   many   opportunities   to   use   association during   your   lessons,   remember   that   you   will   have   students   with   different   experience   levels   in your  class.  Make  sure  you  use  associations  to  which  all  students  can  relate. INSIGHT Insight  is  the  understanding  that  the  whole  is  more  than  the  sum  of  the  parts.  Learning  by insight   occurs   when   the   learner   suddenly   grasps   the   way   elements   of   a   problem   situation   are connected. The  term  describes  a  person’s  unplanned  discovery  of  a  solution  to  a  problem-- often   referred   to   as   the   “ah-ha”   phenomenon. That   phenomenon   results   from   a   mental reorganization  of  ideas  and  concepts  rather  than  from  simple  trial  and  error.  Some  individuals gain  insight  more  rapidly  than  others.  Individual  backgrounds  affect  each  learner’s  ability  to gain  insight,  as  does  the  sequence  in  which  you  present  basic  learning  experiences.  To  help students  gain  insight,  you  must  stimulate  thinking.  Use  appropriate  questions  to  get  their  minds working.   Encourage   thought   rather   than   rote   memorization   by   using   questions   that   require associations,   comparisons,   and   contrasts. TRANSFER Transfer  is  the  process  of  applying  past  learning  to  new  but  somewhat  similar  situations.  This process  is  important  in  Navy  technical  training  because  the  training  environment  can  rarely duplicate  the  actual  job  environment.  Your  goal  is  to  teach  students  the  importance  of  applying 22

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