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the military. It is what brings individuals together as  a  military  team.  Thus,  a  gun  crew  may  be readily converted into a repair party for carrying out any essential job within its capabilities, or a company  of  midshipmen  may  be  turned  into  a fire-fighting  organization.  A  well-disciplined  naval unit responds automatically to an emergency and is  not  subject  to  panic.  This  is  the  reward  of discipline  to  the  Navy. PUNISHMENT Under the Navy’s concept, punishment is not personal, it is not vindictive, nor is it inflicted as revenge  for  misconduct.  The  Navy  realizes  that punishment  cannot  right  the  wrong  resulting  from an act of dereliction. The Navy considers that the value  of  punishment  lies  in  the  object  lesson  it furnishes  the  wrongdoer  and  others—that  the offense  must  not  be  repeated.  This  concept  is referred  to  as  the  deterrent  theory  of  punishment. To accomplish its purpose, punishment must be consistent, just, and recognized as such by the recipients and their shipmates. Punishment should neither  be  of  such  a  nature  that  it  lowers  self- -esteem nor so severe that it is out of proportion to  the  offense. Recipients  of  Navy  punishment  should  keep two  facts  in  mind:  First,  they  received  punishment only  as  a  result  of  their  misbehavior.  Second,  they will not receive punishment again if they learn to conform  to  Navy  standards  of  conduct. The  administration  of  punishment  is  not personal;  therefore,  those  who  administer  it should be shown no malice. They are carrying out their  duties  as  required  by  Navy  regulations. QUALITIES  OF  A  LEADER No two leaders are exactly alike. They do not possess the same qualities in equal proportions, nor  do  they  accomplish  their  ends  in  the  same manner. One thing is certain, however. All great leaders  possess  certain  characteristics  and  abilities that they use to the greatest advantage. Some have turned  weaknesses  into  strengths  and,  by  exercise of willpower and hard work, risen far above what normally  might  have  been  expected  of  them. Every  leader  will  not  possess  every  quality discussed  here,  but  every  good  leader  will  have a substantial number of them. Moreover, the less natural ability a leader has, the more important is  the  person’s  need  to  cultivate  the  leadership qualities  needed  to  be  effective.  All  truly  great leaders   share   one   common   characteristic:   a personal code of conduct and moral responsibility that  does  not  permit  them  to  exploit  their  abilities and positions to the detriment of their followers. Most of us understand about written and un- written  laws  that  guide  our  actions  and  define  our duties—"thou  shalts"  and  “thou  shalt  nots”  by which  we  must  abide.  Our  government  establishes written  laws  while  the  Navy  establishes  many written  and  unwritten  laws  and  prescribes  our duties.  If  we  break  these  laws  or  neglect  our duties, authorities   may   give   us   suitable punishment. Other  laws  and  other  duties  have  no  legal standing  as  far  as  any  law-making  or  law- enforcing  branch  of  government  is  concerned. These  are  moral  laws  and  duties.  Each  leader establishes   these   based   on   his   or   her   own principles.  Depending  on  the  character  of  the person, they can be extensive and more binding than any statutory laws, or they can be completely nonexistent. The leader receives no legal punish- ment for ignoring these laws and duties, and the only  enforcer  is  the  leader’s  own  conscience. In  various  places  throughout  this  text,  we quote rules and regulations, at times explaining them in more or less detail. Therefore, we assume the  reader,  by  now,  understands  what  legal responsibilities   are. But   what   about   moral responsibilities?  The  Navy  expects  its  personnel to demonstrate more than minimum standards of moral  responsibility.  It  expects  commanding officers  and  others  in  authority  to  set  good examples  of  virtue,  honor,  patriotism,  and subordination.  It  expects  them  to  be  vigilant  in inspecting  the  conduct  of  persons  under  their command  and  to  suppress  all  dissolute  and immoral  practices.  It  expects  those  in  authority to  take  necessary  and  proper  procedures  to promote and safeguard the morale, physical well- being, and general welfare of persons under their command. The  history  of  effective  naval  leadership has   isolated   additional   moral   principles   that have  characterized  successful  leaders  from  the beginning  of  naval  history  to  our  present  time. These  principles  are  loyalty,  devotion  to  duty, professional knowledge, self-confidence, initiative and  ingenuity,  courage,  ability  to  organize  and make  decisions,  and  personal  example. LOYALTY Loyalty  means  a  true,  faithful,  strong  (even enthusiastic)  devotion  to  one’s  country.  Ordinarily 5-3

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