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Organizational Chart for the Department of Defense
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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The Department of Defense (DOD)
departments,  each  under  its  own  Secretary:  Army, Navy  (including  the  Marine  Corps),  and  Air Force.  The  three  Secretaries  function  under  the direction, authority, and control of the Secretary of Defense. See figure 11-1 for the DOD organiza- tional  chart. Congress also created the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS)  to  integrate  planning  and  operations  among the  armed  services.  The  Chiefs  of  Staff  of  the separate services make up the JCS. A chairman, considered to be the senior member of the armed services,  heads  the  JCS. The  legislation  also  established  unified  and specified  commands.  This  action  unified  the strategic  direction  of  the  combatant  forces  into an  efficient  team  of  land,  naval,  and  air  forces. A   unified   command   consists   of   significant components  of  two  or  more  military  services.  A specified  command  normally  consists  of  forces from  only  one  service. As you read this chapter, you will learn more about  the  DOD,  the  three  military  services,  the JCS, and unified and specified commands. If you are unfamiliar with these subjects, this will be a good  introduction.  If  you  have  a  good  under- standing of these subjects, this will serve as a good review. NATIONAL   SECURITY National  security  is  a  matter  of  concern  for all  Americans,  but  no  U.S.  citizen  faces  more responsibility  than  the  President  of  the  United States.   The   National   Security   Council   (NSC), under  the  President,  shares  in  this  responsibility. The  NSC  sits  at  the  pinnacle  of  our  nation’s defense structure. THE PRESIDENT (COMMANDER  IN  CHIEF) The power of the President in the capacity of COMMANDER  IN  CHIEF  OF  THE  ARMED FORCES  is  extensive.  That  power  increases  in  the event of war or some other national emergency. For  example,  the  President  may  declare  an emergency and call out the military Reserves or even order the armed forces into military action before  Congress  actually  declares  war.  Often  a President has referred a matter to Congress after the  fact.  The  following  actions  are  examples: In  1801  President  Jefferson  sent  naval squadrons to the Mediterranean and then informed   Congress. In 1845 President Polk deployed the Navy to  the  coast  of  Mexico  to  quell  trouble caused  by  the  annexation  of  Texas.  He asked Congress to declare war on Mexico 5  months  later,  and  Congress  did. In   1862   President   Lincoln   personally assumed  command  of  successful  military operations  against  Confederate  forces  in Norfolk,  Virginia. In  1896  President  McKinley  ordered  the naval   blockade   of   Cuba.   Congress declared  war  on  Spain  3  days  later. In  1941  President  Franklin  Roosevelt declared an unlimited national emergency and  ordered  the  U.S.  Navy  to  “sink  on sight”  foreign  submarines  found  in  our “defensive  waters.” In 1962 President Kennedy ordered a naval quarantine  of  Cuba  based  on  Soviet military  activity  on  that  island. In 1965 President Johnson ordered naval air action against North Vietnamese gun- boats  and  support  facilities. In 1979 President Carter ordered units of the U.S. Sixth and Seventh Fleets to the Indian Ocean to assist in hostage evacua- tion operations and as deterrents against Iranian  actions. These and other less significant actions of our Presidents  have  established  presidential  authority and  control  of  U.S.  military  forces. NATIONAL   SECURITY   COUNCIL The National Security Act of 1947 established the   National   Security   Council.   The   President chairs  the  Council. The  statutory  members,  in  addition  to  the President,  consist  of  the  Vice  President  and  the Secretaries of State and Defense. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff serves as the statutory military  adviser  to  the  Council.  The  Director  of Central  Intelligence  serves  as  the  intelligence adviser. The  National  Security  Council  advises  the President  about  the  integration  of  domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security. 11-3

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