departments, each under its own Secretary: Army,
Navy (including the Marine Corps), and Air
Force. The three Secretaries function under the
direction, authority, and control of the Secretary
of Defense. See figure 11-1 for the DOD organiza-
Congress also created the Joint Chiefs of Staff
(JCS) to integrate planning and operations among
the armed services. The Chiefs of Staff of the
separate services make up the JCS. A chairman,
considered to be the senior member of the armed
services, heads the JCS.
The legislation also established unified and
specified commands. This action unified the
strategic direction of the combatant forces into
an efficient team of land, naval, and air forces.
A unified command consists of significant
components of two or more military services. A
specified command normally consists of forces
from only one service.
As you read this chapter, you will learn more
about the DOD, the three military services, the
JCS, and unified and specified commands. If you
are unfamiliar with these subjects, this will be a
good introduction. If you have a good under-
standing of these subjects, this will serve as a good
National security is a matter of concern for
all Americans, but no U.S. citizen faces more
responsibility than the President of the United
States. The National Security Council (NSC),
under the President, shares in this responsibility.
The NSC sits at the pinnacle of our nations
(COMMANDER IN CHIEF)
The power of the President in the capacity of
COMMANDER IN CHIEF OF THE ARMED
FORCES is extensive. That power increases in the
event of war or some other national emergency.
For example, the President may declare an
emergency and call out the military Reserves or
even order the armed forces into military action
before Congress actually declares war. Often a
President has referred a matter to Congress after
the fact. The following actions are examples:
In 1801 President Jefferson sent naval
squadrons to the Mediterranean and then
In 1845 President Polk deployed the Navy
to the coast of Mexico to quell trouble
caused by the annexation of Texas. He
asked Congress to declare war on Mexico
5 months later, and Congress did.
In 1862 President Lincoln personally
assumed command of successful military
operations against Confederate forces in
In 1896 President McKinley ordered the
naval blockade of Cuba. Congress
declared war on Spain 3 days later.
In 1941 President Franklin Roosevelt
declared an unlimited national emergency
and ordered the U.S. Navy to sink on
sight foreign submarines found in our
In 1962 President Kennedy ordered a naval
quarantine of Cuba based on Soviet
military activity on that island.
In 1965 President Johnson ordered naval
air action against North Vietnamese gun-
boats and support facilities.
In 1979 President Carter ordered units of
the U.S. Sixth and Seventh Fleets to the
Indian Ocean to assist in hostage evacua-
tion operations and as deterrents against
These and other less significant actions of our
Presidents have established presidential authority
and control of U.S. military forces.
NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL
The National Security Act of 1947 established
the National Security Council. The President
chairs the Council.
The statutory members, in addition to the
President, consist of the Vice President and the
Secretaries of State and Defense. The Chairman
of the Joint Chiefs of Staff serves as the statutory
military adviser to the Council. The Director of
Central Intelligence serves as the intelligence
The National Security Council advises the
President about the integration of domestic,
foreign, and military policies relating to national