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Chapter 9 Uniforms, Insignia, and Awards
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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Admiral
All  commissioned  officers  (including  a  chief [commissioned]  warrant  officer)  hold  a  com- mission granted by the President and signed by the  Secretary  of  the  Navy. OFFICERS’  GRADES  AND  TITLES The   following   shows   how   naval   officers’ grades correspond to those of the other services: Navy Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral, upper half (UH) Rear admiral, lower half (LH) Captain Commander Lieutenant  commander Lieutenant Lieutenant  (junior  grade) Ensign Chief warrant officer (W-4) Chief warrant officer (W-3) Chief warrant officer (W-2) Army, Marine Corps, Air Force General Lieutenant   general Major  general Brigadier   general Colonel Lieutenant  colonel Major Captain First  lieutenant Second lieutenant Same as Navy* Same as Navy* Same as Navy* *The U.S. Air Force does not have a chief warrant officer rank. Flag  Officer Officers  of  the  grade  of  rear  admiral  and above  are  known  as  flag  officers.  Flag  officers have the privilege of flying a personal flag on the ship  or  station  to  which  they  are  attached.  The number of stars decorating the flag indicates the officer’s  grade  as  follows: Rear  admiral  (LH) 1 star Rear  admiral  (UH) 2 stars Vice admiral 3 stars Admiral 4 stars The personal flag of an officer of the line has a  blue  field  with  white  stars.  The  personal  flag of a staff corps officer has a white field with blue stars. Admiral The  title  of  admiral  comes  from  the  Arabic amir-al-bahr,   meaning  ruler  of  the  sea.  The Moorish  also  used  the  term  emir as  the  title  given to the senior ranking officer in the Moorish army. See   figure   9-1   for   a   description   of   the   term admiral.  The French and English used the title long  before  the  discovery  of  America,  but  the grade was not established in the U.S. Navy until 1862  (along  with  commodore). In  1944  Congress  established  the  five-star grade  of  fleet  admiral  (a  comparable  grade  of General of the Army). The first officers appointed to  this  grade  were  Admirals  William  D.  Leahy; Ernest J. King; Chester W. Nimitz; and William F.  Halsey,  Jr.  Authority  for  the  grade  of  fleet admiral no longer exists (it expired with the death of Admiral Nimitz in 1966). Its reestablishment will  require  another  act  of  Congress. Commodore Until   1862   all   captains   in   the   United States   Navy   commanding   or   having   com- manded   squadrons   of   ships   were   customarily addressed   as   commodore,   though   never   com- missioned   as   such.   Commodore   became   a fixed  grade  in  1862  and  then  was  abandoned as   a   grade   on   the   active   list   in   1899.   In 1943 the grade of commodore was reestablished for temporary service in time of war or national emergency. Line and Staff Corps Officers Navy   officers   who   are   eligible   to   assume command of ships (and stations) are designated unrestricted  line  officers,  being  in  the  line  of command. Other officers serve as members of the several  staff  corps  or  as  specialists  in  various fields. 9-2

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