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Dr. Usher Parsons
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Naval Orientation - Military manual for administrative purposes
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David Farragut
MacDonough (fig.  2-8)  was  everywhere  during the   battle,   trying   to   instill   organization   and fighting spirit into his crew. His  calm  determina- tion was remarkably contagious. The credit of this victory  against  a  superior  force  belongs  first  and last   to   MacDonough   himself.   In   choosing    a position    that    imposed    upon    the    British    an approach under a raking fire, he won the opening gambit   of   the   battle.   Meantime,   he   was   wise enough  to  hold  several  tactical  tricks  in  reserve. With these he  managed  to  rally  when  the  enemy thought him beaten. MacDonough’s    Champlain    victory    was    an example of the American naval effort in the War of 1812.  Pitted  against  the  greatest  naval  power  in the world, our tiny Navy fought with great valor. In accomplishing much with little, the Navy began another  tradition—one  expressed  by  the  Navy’s slogan in  World  War  II:  “We  must  all  do  all  that we can with what we have.” THE CIVIL WAR SIGNIFICANT DATES 26 Jun. 1861    Commander James Harmon Ward killed by musket ball— first Union naval officer to become casualty in Civil War. 16 Jul. 1862 Rank of rear admiral created; David G. Farragut appointed as first to hold rank. 11 May 1865     Confederate navy surrenders to Captain Edward Simpson. 25 Jul. 1866 David G. Farragut appointed first admiral in U.S. Navy. The   naval   history   of   the   Civil   War   vividly portrays  the  use  of  sea  forces  against  an  enemy who was economically dependent on shipping. The Confederate  States  were  a  combined  land  power with    the    advantage    of    interior    lines.    The Confederates’  many  sea  and  river  ports  allowed them access to world commerce, which they vitally needed;  but  an  effective  Union  blockade  denied them   war   imports.   The   Confederates   achieved their  successes  with  shoestring  resources,  which were soon expended. The  Union  navy  (U.S.  Navy)  simultaneously assumed    three    huge    strategic    tasks,    largely amphibious  in  nature.  It  attempted  to  blockade the   whole   southern   coast,   force   its   way   into various  southern  ports,  and  cooperate  with  the Union army on the Mississippi front. Union naval forces  were  also  called  upon  to  protect  northern 134.11 Figure 2-8.-The greatest naval victory of the War of 1812, perhaps the most decisive of all battles fought on land or sea in that conflict, was won by Captain Thomas MacDonough, “the hero of Lake Champlain. ” The action halted a British invasion of New York that stood little chance of defeat at the hands of the American army. shipping  from  enemy  raiders.  The  Union  navy’s ability to adjust to new conditions is shown in the way it met the complex demands of the Civil War both  afloat  and  ashore.  To  complicate  matters, naval  warfare  at  that  time  was  in  a  transitional period;  that  is,  a  total  naval  revolution  was  in progress.   Although   steam   propulsion   was   in- troduced earlier, armor was just coming into use. In  the  field  of  ordnance,  rifled  guns  and  shell ammunition required new methods of fire control. Produced  by  this  rapid  transition  was  one  of the     oddest     assortments     of     warships     ever assembled. The Union fleet  contained  old  wooden frigates   like   the   Constitution,   converted   East River ferryboats, scores of armed steamers, and a number of experimental ironclads. The South used armored     vessels,     steam     commerce     raiders, electrical mines, and even primitive submarines. Under  the  superior  leadership  of  Secretary  of the  Navy  Gideon  Welles  and  Assistant  Secretary Gustavus V. Fox, the Union navy used the war as a testing period for strategies and weaponry. 2-11

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