make sure they reflect an accurate indication of the desired learning outcomes and, in fact,
measure what you think they are measuring. You cannot measure level three outcomes by level
one objectives. Nor can you measure student comprehension by asking recall level questions.
The responsibility for ensuring learning outcomes falls largely to you, the instructor. If the
intended outcome of instruction is for the student to be able to apply theory, principles, or
concepts (level three of the cognitive domain), then objectives must developed and taught at that
Domains involve a hierarchy of learning outcomes. Those outcomes allow you to provide
instruction in a defined sequence.
Thus, you present facts, methods, basic procedures, and
terminology. Then you can measure your students accomplishment of those objectives (by
testing) before teaching higher levels of information.
The objectives show students what they are expected to learn from instruction. The objectives
tell the instructor at what level to present information. If the purpose of a topic, as defined
by the learning objectives, is to cover information at the knowledge level, be careful not to go
into too much detail. Conversely, if the purpose is to teach students to apply the information
presented, dont make the critical error of presenting information only at the knowledge level.
THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN
The affective domain defines learning outcomes associated with emotions and feelings, such
as interest, attitudes, and appreciation.
Measuring the accomplishment of objectives in the
affective domain is generally more difficult than in the other domains. In this domain we are not
only interested in a correct response but also in determining the students feeling, attitude, and
interest toward the subject.
THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN
In Navy training a large percentage of course objectives are associated with the cognitive
domain while a relatively small percentage are associated with the affective domain. Because
of the nature of technical training, the Navy places a great deal of emphasis on learning
outcomes of the psychomotor domain.
In the chapter on Principles of Learning, you read about the ways people learn. They
included imitation, trial and error, transfer, association, and insight. While none of these ways
are unique to any one domain, imitation, trial and error, and transfer are closely associated with
the psychomotor domain.
Students accomplish much of their skill learning by imitating behaviors they observe in others.
They acquire some skills by trying something until they hit upon a satisfactory (though not
necessarily correct) solution or outcome.
Transfer, you remember, is applying past learning in new ways. You cannot always provide
students with skill training on actual equipments.
Thus, you must strive to create realistic
learning situations that will enable students to transfer that learning to their actual job.
The categories of the psychomotor domain are as follows: