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Multiple-Choice Test Item Formats
Avoid  using  negative  wording.  However,  if  you  must  use  negative  wording,  highlight  it (e.g.,  in  caps  or  underlined). Punctuate  alternatives  to  conform  grammatically  with  the  structure  of  the  item  stem. If  the  stem  is  a  question  (i.e.,  a  closed-stem)  and  the  alternatives  are  complete  sentences, begin  each  alternative  with  a  capital  letter  and  end  each  one  with  a  period. If   the   stem   is   a   question   and   the   alternatives   are   incomplete   sentences,   begin   each alternative   with   a   capital   letter   and   use   no   end   punctuation. If  the  stem  is  an  incomplete  sentence  (open-stem)  with  the  response  position  at  the  end  of the  stem,  begin  each  alternative  with  a  lowercase  letter  (except  for  proper  nouns)  and  end it  with  a  period. With   the   incomplete   sentence   test   item, make   the   wording   of   the   alternatives grammatically   related   to   that   of   the   item   stem. Randomly   select   the   position   of   the   correct   answer   among   the   alternatives   to   avoid   any patterns  that  may  bias  the  test. In   items   that   involve   numerical   answers,   arrange   the   alternatives   in   ascending   or descending    order. Multiple-Choice  Stem  Formats You  will  use  two  formats  to  construct  the  stem  of  multiple-choice  test  items;  the   closed   and the  open. Closed stem format.  You  may  write  closed  stem  items  as  a  complete  statement  or  incomplete statement.  The  following  is  an  example  of  a  complete  statement  format: EXAMPLE:  Which  of  the  following  actions  is  required  to  remove  a  hinged type  2  module  on  the  MTRE  Mk  7  Mod  2/4? (a)  Disconnect  plates  from  the  type  2  module. (b)   Insert   “T”   handle   into   quick   release   fasteners. (c)  Remove  all  Type  3  modules  and  connectors. (d)  Rotate  hold  down  clamps  to  a  vertical  position. The  complete  statement  format  has  the  advantage  of  forcing  you  to  state  the  problem  clearly in  the  stem.  It  also  reduces  the  possibility  of  giving  students  grammatical  clues.  A  disadvantage is  that  it  may  require  lengthier  responses. The  following  is  an  example  of  an  incomplete statement   format: 75

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