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Care of Ground Tackle
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excessive wear at this time. If necessary, they are scaled and cleaned of rust and other foreign matters, checked for excessive wear or corrosion and, where conditions warrant, replaced with new ones. Disassembly of detachable links in the outboard swivel  shot  with  hairpins  requires  removal,  and probable destruction, of the lockwire. The availability of  replacement  wire  of  the  same  type  should  be established  before  removal  for  inspection  of  the detachable  link.  Replacement  hairpins  can  be  fabricated on board ship from corrosion-resistant steel. Anchor   chain   and   appendages   are   carefully examined for cracks, excessive wear, distortion, or other defects. Parts that require coating are painted with anchor  chain  gloss  black  paint.  Shackles,  bolts,  locking pins, and swivels are examined carefully and put in order.  The  turnbuckles  in  chain  stoppers  require frequent attention to keep them clean, free from rust, and well lubricated with a graphite grease. Chain  of  sizes  by  more  than  1  1/2-inch  wire diameter is overhauled, wire brushed, and placed in a good state of preservation as often as required. At least once every 18 months all anchor chain, regardless of size, (including all fittings) is examined, overhauled, and placed in a good state of preservation (5 years for carriers). To distribute the wear uniformly throughout the length of the chain, the shots are shifted to a new position as necessary during this inspection. If, during overhaul   of   the   chain,   significant   defects   are discovered, they are brought to the attention of the Naval Sea Systems Command. If it is not practical to make  immediate  replacement,  the  defective  shots  are shifted to the bitter end of the chain. Chapter C6, Volume 2 of OPNAVINST 5100.19 (series) (NAVOSH Program Manual for Forces Afloat) contains safety precautions  on  ground  tackle. ANCHOR WINDLASS Windlasses are installed on board ships primarily for handling and securing the anchor and chain used for anchoring the ship and for handling anchor chain used for towing the ship. Most windlasses have capstans or gypsy heads for handling line in mooring and warping operations. Windlasses can be located on the stern of the ship for stern anchoring, but are usually located in the bow of the ship for handling bower anchors. Windlasses also handle  bottom-mounted  braided  fluke  anchors  (keel anchors) used on submarines (stern) and some surface ships  (bow). Landing ships capable of beaching have a separate anchor winch to handle the stern anchor used for retracting  from  the  beach. Two general types of windlasses are installed on naval  ships.  They  are  the  vertical  shaft  and  the horizontal shaft types. See figures 4-10 and 4-11. These two types are subdivided into classes, depending on the power source. These classes are electrohydraulic drive and electric drive. The essential parts of a typical windlass, regardless of its type and class, are the drive motor, wildcat, locking head, hand brake, capstan or gypsy  head,  and  control. Horizontal shaft windlasses are usually made as a self-contained unit with the windlass and drive motor mounted   on   the   same   bedplate.   Vertical   shaft windlasses  have  their  power  source  located  below  deck with only the wildcats and capstans mounted above deck. The windlass wildcat is a special type of drum or sprocket constructed to handle the anchor chain links. The outer surface has flats (or pockets) which engage chain links. At each end of the pockets, lugs (known as whelps) are provided, which contact the end of the flat link.   A   central   groove   in   the   outer   surface accommodates the vertical links which are not in contact with the wildcat at any point. Windlass   wildcats   have   a   locking   head   for disengaging the wildcat from its power source. The locking head permits free rotation of the wildcat when you are “paying out” the chain. Locking heads usually consist of two sliding block keys that may be shifted to key together a drive spider and the wildcat. The drive spider is keyed to the windlass's shaft, while the wildcat Figure  4-11.–Horizontal  shaft  anchor  windlass. 4-9

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