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Projectile  Types
designations of bore diameter, such as 20-mm, 3-inch, or 5-inch, the length of the gun bore in calibers is also used  as  a  means  of  classification.  Thus  a  3-inch, 50-caliber projectile is one used in a gun having a bore diameter of 3 inches and a bore length of 50 times 3 inches, or 150 inches. The three types of ammunition classified by assembly are shown in figure 6-1. Fixed  Ammunition The   Fixed   class   of   ammunition   applies   to ammunition that has the cartridge case crimped around the base of the projectile. The primer is assembled in the cartridge case. The projectile and the cartridge case, containing the primer and propellant charge, form one unit as a fixed round of ammunition. Small-caliber guns and   guns   through   3-inch,   50-caliber   use   fixed ammunition. Semi-fixed  Ammunition Semi-fixed, or separated ammunition, applies to ammunition that consists of two units: the projectile assembly and cartridge case assembly. The projectile assembly  consists  of  the  projectile  body  containing  the load, the nose fuze, the base fuze, and the auxiliary detonating fuze, as applicable. The cartridge case assembly  consists  of  the  cartridge  case,  primer, propellant charge, wad, distance piece, and a plug to close the open end of the cartridge case. Semi-fixed ammunition  is  produced  in  gun  sizes  of  5-inch, 54-caliber  through  8-inch,  55-caliber  guns. PROJECTILES The  projectile is that component of ammunition that, when fired from a gun, carries out the tactical purpose of the weapon. While some types of projectiles are one piece, the majority of naval gun projectiles are assemblies of several components. All of the projectiles briefly discussed by classification in this chapter have several  common  features,  as  described  in  the  following paragraphs  and  as  illustrated  in  figure  6-2. Ogive The  ogive  is  the  curved  forward  portion  of  a projectile. The curve is determined by a complex formula designed to give maximum range and accuracy. The shape of the ogive is generally expressed by stating its radius in terms of calibers. It may be a combination of several arcs of different radii. Bourrelet The bourrelet is a smooth, machined area that acts as a bearing surface for the projectile during its travel through the bore of the gun. Some projectiles have only one  bourrelet  (forward);  the  rotating  band  serves  as  the bearing surface in the rear. Other projectiles have one bourrelet forward and one or two aft, the after one being located adjacent to and either forward or aft of the rotating band. Bourrelets are painted to prevent rusting. Body The body is the main part of the projectile and contains the greatest mass of metal. It is made slightly smaller in diameter than the bourrelet and is given only a  machine  finish. Figure 6-1.–Types of gun ammunition: fixed (top); semi-fixed (center); and separate-loading (bagged gun) (bottom). Figure 6-2.–Typical projectile, external view. 6-3

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