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Hand Signals Used in Crane Operations, sheet 2
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Seaman - Military manual for the Seaman rate
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Replenisment Operations Signals
supplies, and personnel from one vessel to another while ships are underway. The term replenishment at sea, formerly used in this sense, applies to all methods except  those  for  fueling  at  sea. Before the techniques of UNREP were developed, a ship that ran low on fuel, supplies, or ammunition had to return to port, or the fleet had to lie to while the ship was partially replenished by small boats. If several or all the ships were in need, the whole fleet had to return to port.   The   disadvantages   were   obvious.   The effectiveness of a fleet was reduced by every ship that had to leave, and a ship or small group of ships detached from a fleet were in greater danger of being sunk or captured. A fleet lying to in order to replenish was more vulnerable to attack, and a fleet heading back to port left the way open for an enemy fleet to accomplish its mission. With underway replenishment, a whole fleet can be resupplied, rearmed, and refueled in a matter of hours while proceeding on its mission. The first significant replenishment operation ever performed at sea by the U.S. Navy was in 1899, when the U.S. Navy collier Marcellus, a coal carrier, while towing  USS  Massuchusetts,  transferred  coal  to  it.  Since that   time,   many   methods   have   been   tried   and abandoned.  Those  methods  described  in  this  section have been adopted as the most feasible and are currently used in the fleet. The   equipment   and   procedures   used   in replenishment operations are only briefly described in this section. They are discussed in more detail in Boatswain's Mate, Volume 1, NAVEDTRA 10101; and Replenishment at Sea,” NWP 14 (series). Two  general  methods  of  UNREP  are  used: connected  replenishment  (CONREP)  and  vertical replenishment (VERTREP). They may be used singly or at the same time. In CONREP, two or more ships steam side by side, and the hoses and lines used to transfer the fuel, ammunition, supplies, and personnel connect  the  ships.  VERTREP  is  carried  out  by helicopters. The ships may be in the proximity or miles apart, depending on the tactical situation and the amount of cargo to be transferred. CONREP concerns two processes: refueling and resupply. In fueling at sea (FAS), fuel is pumped from a delivering ship that may be a replenishment oiler (AOR), oiler (AO), fast combat support ship (AOE), or a large combat ship. Other replenishment ships, such as the combat store ship (AFS) and the ammunition ship (AE), can deliver lesser amounts of fuel, since their primary purpose is to deliver solid cargo (supplies and ammunition) by the methods now referred to as replenishment at sea (RAS). The most common refueling rigs are the span-wire and the close-in rigs. Both rigs, and other variations, will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter. The span-wire rig has several variations: single hose, double hose, and probe. The span wire may be either tensioned or   untensioned.   Tensioning   the   span   wire   is accomplished by a ram tensioner. A tensioned span wire or highline, as it is called in RAS, is also used when the  standard  tensioned  replenishment  alongside  method (STREAM) of transfer is used. STREAM transfer consists of an all-tensioned rig, highline, outhaul, and inhaul. The method of fairleading the outhaul is a traveling  standard  UNREP  fixture  (traveling  SURF). The SURF is used with two STREAM rigs, the regular traveling SURF and the SURF traveling–actuated remotely (STAR) rig. STREAM with tension highline has  an  alternate  method  when  the  UNREP  ship experiences difficulties with the outhaul winch. This rig is called a Burton outhaul and is sent to ships having Burton  whip  capabilities. Other common methods of RAS include manila highline,  Burton  housefall,  and  modified  housefall. You must be familiar with the various equipments and  procedures  used  during  replenishment.  Making rough sketches of the equipment and labeling the various parts might help you to remember the various rigs. The  illustrations  in  this  section,  and  the  procedures described, are representative only. For example, many items of rigging, such as guys and preventers, have been omitted from illustrations for clarity. Consult NWP 14 and  the  Underway Replenishment Hardware and Equipment Manual to determine the details of rigging and the personnel and tools required for each rigging situation. Ship's plans show rigging details, while the ship  SORM  fixes  responsibility  for  the  various functions  to  be  performed. The  Underway Replenishment Hardware and Equipment Manual provides a catalog of the equipment used in the transfer of solid cargo and bulk fluids, and a description of the methods used in UNREP. The manual permits  the  user  to  identify  the  equipment  and establishes the intended use. It also makes reference to additional detailed technical information related to the configuration, operation, maintenance, safety features, installation,  and  procurement  of  UNREP  equipment. Your worth as a Seaman will be judged largely on how you conduct yourself during evolutions, such as fueling at sea. Make sure that every piece of gear required is at your station. Do not forget such things as 4-28

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