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Sewing Bolt Ropes to Canvas by Hand
Seaman - Military manual for the Seaman rate
Care of Leather
When you are spreading an awning, haul it over the jackstay and spread it out fore and aft. If the awning is large and heavy, it may be necessary to rig a block and tackle to haul it taut. Next, man and reeve the earrings around the ridge rope. Pull them taut and secure them temporarily to the ridge ropes. Reeve, set taut, and secure the stops temporarily to the ridge ropes. It will be necessary to go back and tighten all stops and earrings to take the sag from the awning. Earrings and stops are secured by wrapping their bitter ends around the parts reeved through the grommets and around the ridge rope, tucking  the  ends  between  the  parts. During  rains,  awnings  must  be  housed  to  allow them to shed water better. This is done by casting off two or more stops between earrings and securing them lower down to the lifeline. When awnings are secured by long lacings reeved through a number of grommets, it is almost impossible to house them. It may be to your advantage to replace the lacings with earrings and stops. In particularly windy weather, awnings sometimes are furled. To furl an awning, you cast off the stops and earrings and haul one edge across the jackstay to the other side. Then roll the awning up and secure it to the jackstay with marline hitches. GROMMETS Many repair facilities today such as shore inter- mediate  maintenance  activities  (SIMAs)  routinely  man- ufacture canvas items such as awnings and gun covers. However, you may still have to insert grommets. For this reason you should have a basic knowledge of grommets. Handsewing   Grommets Metal   grommets   have   almost   replaced   the handsewn type, but if you should ever be caught with- out the proper size of metal grommets, you should know how to make them by hand. Handsewn grommets are almost as strong as the metal type when they are pro- perly made and sewn to the canvas. The first step is to fashion a two- or three-strand grommet of marline. Stretch this over a fid to make it round and firm. Double your sail twine, twist the two parts together, and wax it adequately. Then punch a hole slightly smaller than the grommet in the canvas. Sew the grommet into the hole using a round stitch. Pass the needle through the canvas, well back from the edge. After  completing  the  stitches,  shape  the  grommet  again with a fid. Using  Metal  Grommets Several different types of metal grommets are in use, but the two that are most familiar are pictured in figure   3-39.   The   one   in   view   A   is   called   the eyelet-and-ring type; it comes in sizes 6 to 15, inclusive, with inner diameters from 3/4 inch to 2 inches. View B shows the spur type. It is in sizes 0 to 6, inclusive, with inner diameters from 1/4 to 3/4 inch. The  cutting  punches  shown  range  in  diameter  from 1 inch down to 7/16 inch in the double bow type (view C), and from 3/8 to 1/8 inch in the single bow type (view D). When you are using these to punch holes in canvas, lay the canvas on a piece of heavy sheet lead, and they will cut a neat, clean hole. The  grommet-inserting  punches  and  dies  are  avail- able in sets in the same sizes as the grommets; that is, from 0 to 15. Use the same size set as the size of grommet. In figure 3-39, view E shows the punch and view F shows the die. The proper way to insert the spur type of grommet is to push the eyelet part of the grommet through the hole in the canvas. Place the eyelet on the die and the spur over the eyelet. The punch fits inside the eyelet and,  when struck with a hammer, curls the edge of the Figure  3-39.–Grommets,  cutting  punches,  and  inserting punch die. 3-28

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