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Fillings and Finishes - 14163_191
escape rapidly if the mixed batter is allowed to stand. Scale each muffin carefully, filling each muffin cup two-thirds full. Too much batter in muffin pans causes muffins to be coarse.    A well-prepared muffin has a uniform texture, even grain, and a well-rounded but uniform  top  crust.  A  muffin  mix  is  available.  Prepare it according to instructions on the container. Baking Powder Biscuits Baking powder biscuits are prepared from flour, liquid,  shortening,  salt,  and  a  leavening  agent.  When mixing, the shortening should be cut in thoroughly until the  mixture  resembles  cornmeal. The  proportion  of  liquid  to  dry  ingredients  is extremely  important  in  the  production  of  biscuit  dough. The dough should be soft, not dry or stiff, and slightly sticky. Gradually add water until dough is formed. The condition of the flour, moisture in the bake shop, and the speed of mixing can alter the amount of liquid used. When  to  stop  adding  liquid  will  be  recognized  as experience is gained in the production of biscuits. BISCUIT  MIX.—  Biscuit mix is also used and contains all the ingredients except water. The leavening agent is packaged separately from the other ingredients. It should be thoroughly blended with the mix before blending in the required water. Follow directions for baking listed on the container. BISCUIT  VARIATIONS.—  Biscuit  variations may be prepared by rolling the dough in a rectangular shape, spreading the dough with butter, and adding brown  sugar  and  nuts  or  a  granulated  sugar- cinnamon-raisin  filling.  The  biscuit  dough  is  rolled  up like a jelly roll and the biscuits are then sliced. Cheddar or American cheese that has been grated maybe added to the dry ingredients to make cheese biscuits. Cutting and Panning Biscuit  cutters  used  are  2  1/2  inches  in  diameter. Dip cutters in flour and tap lightly to remove the excess flour before cutting out the biscuits. Cut the biscuits so that rounds do not overlap. Biscuit dough also may be patted on baking sheets and  cut  with  a  sharp  knife  in  squares  to  speed  up production and to save rerolling of dough. If little space is left between each biscuit on the pan, less crust is formed. If more crust is wanted, place biscuits farther apart. Baking powder biscuits should be baked at the temperature listed in the AFRS. They are best when served  piping  hot. YEAST-RAISED DOUGHNUTS The doughnut formula is basically a sweet dough; however,  leavening  and  eggs  are  decreased  and  a combination of bread and general-purpose flours is used.  A  blend  of  general-purpose  and  bread  flours produces  a  more  tender  texture  and  a  shorter fermentation time than if all bread flour is used. Doughnut  formulas  contain  different  percentages  of sugar,  shortening,  and  eggs;  the  greater  amount  used,  the richer  the  dough.  However,  variations  in  richness  for yeast-raised doughnuts do not extend over as wide a possible range as with cake doughnut formulas that tolerate larger quantities of sugar and eggs. The  sugar  content  in  yeast-raised  doughnuts controls,  to  some  extent,  the  amount  of  browning  and fat  absorption  during  frying. The quality of ingredients is just as important in doughnut production as it is in other yeast-raised items. Extreme care in mixing, fermentation, and makeup is essential  to  high-quality  doughnut  production. Mixing Mixing temperature should be controlled so that the  dough  leaves  the  mixer  at  78°F  to  82°F.  The temperature of ingredients when mixed has a definite effect on the amount of fat absorbed during frying. Mixing time should be limited to 10 minutes or until the dough  is  smooth  and  elastic. Fermentation  and  Makeup Mixed doughs should be immediately divided into uniform pieces, the size of which depends on the weight of  the  entire  batch  being  made  up.  Follow  recipe instructions for rolling and cutting, as thickness of dough  and  uniformity  of  doughnut  size  are  extremely important to proper frying. If there are cracks in the dough, or if it is stretched unnecessarily, the dough will tend to absorb a greater amount of fat during frying. CUTTING.— Doughnut cutters should be used carefully  to  prevent  overlapping  the  cuts  and  wasting  the dough. Reworked and rerolled dough can be used, but will not give cut doughnuts a smooth surface or an even brown  color. Doughnuts may be cut into various shapes. Other than  the  characteristic  round  shape  without  centers, there are long johns, crullers, and beignets. 8-14

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