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Page Title: Defense Against Radiological, Biological, and Chemical Agents
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Garbage  and  Trash  Disposal
Mess Management Specialist 1 & C - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Radiological Decontamination - 14163_28
worktables sanitized and immaculate y clean. Do not use steel wool for cleaning. Smoking is not permitted in any foodservice areas. RECEIVING   AND   FOOD   STORAGE AREAS.— Before  receiving  and  storing  food  items,  it is very important that loading docks, piers, or areas where foods are received and stored must be thoroughly cleaned to avoid food contamination. Stores must be inspected for the presence of cockroaches and other insect pests before they are stored. Correct storage procedures  play  a  major  role  in  preventing  food-borne illnesses and increasing the storage life of food. High levels of sanitation and safety must be maintained in all food storage facilities. Food items should be safely palletized or placed on shelves in an appropriate manner. This proper storage allows proper cleaning and prevents insect  and  rodent  infestation. DEFENSE  AGAINST  RADIOLOGICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL AGENTS The  nature  of  the  radiological,  biological,  and chemical   contamination   problem   and   the   basic procedures  to  be  followed  when  decontaminating  food, galleys, spaces, and equipment are discussed in the following   paragraphs. DEFENSE  AGAINST  RADIOLOGICAL AGENTS Radiological defense includes all such measures to minimize  personnel  and  material  damage  from radioactivity.  The  basic  responsibility  for  this  function resides with the damage control organization of the ship or  station.  Your  basic  guidance  in  radiological  defense matters  will  come  from  them. Supply  department personnel are normally assigned appropriate duties according to the damage control plan. You should be aware of the plans and procedures to be followed on board your ship or station. Emergency  operations  are  those  that  immediately follow  the  blast. During  this  period,  a  realistic evaluation of the disaster is made and initial steps toward   recovery   are   taken.   Protective   clothing monitoring  equipment  and  decontamination  gear  will also  be  needed. RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION Blast damage and thermal radiation may result in partial  or  complete  destruction  of  messing  facilities  and food items. Radioactivity is important because of the effect it has on the human body. Because of its ability to  penetrate  matter  deeply,  gamma  radiation  is  usually considered to be the most hazardous. Since the principal source  of  alpha  particles  would  be  the  unfissioned nuclear  material  of  the  weapon,  the  probability  of significant alpha contamination from nuclear detonation is  small.  Beta  particles  have  poor  penetrating  ability. Ordinary  clothing  will  stop  beta  particles.  They  enter the skin only to a depth of about one-fifth of an inch, but their ionizing power is about 100 times that of gamma rays. When ingested with food, inhaled, or admitted into  the  body  through  cuts  or  open  wounds,  beta particles  meet  no  barriers  and  become  particularly destructive if they are retained in the body for sometime. Therefore, in food preparation and service, all forms of radioactivity  should  be  regarded  as  hazardous. Radioactivity  may  be  introduced  into  exposed materials that are close to the burst. Such items as soap, table salt, copper, or brass may become radioactive as a result   of   radiation   (the   action   of   neutrons). Radioactivity  may  also  be  carried  by  blast  residues,  the principal   one   being   dust   particles.   A   person contaminated  by  radioactive  materials  can  easily contaminate an otherwise safe object or area. If the person   handles   foods,   the   foods   can   become contaminated. Radioactivity cannot be destroyed by cooking or sterilization; neither can it be neutralized by chemical treatment. It must be removed as completely as possible to a limit of radioactivity set by the command authority  in  the  light  of  existing  circumstances. MONITORING  TO  DETERMINE  EXTENT OF RADIOACTIVITY Radioactive  materials  can  only  be  removed  by physical means. The extent of radioactivity existing in any   food   preparation   or   serving   area   should   be determined   by   a   survey   with   radiac   monitoring equipment.  This  includes  the  galley  utensils,  food  for preparation,  dinnerware,  the  scullery,  and  all  personnel involved in food preparation and service. If the survey so indicates, it may be necessary to reestablish the mess in another area designated as safe by the commanding officer. The  supply  officer  is  responsible  for  taking  the necessary precautions to make sure the food served is free from radioactive contamination. Galleys and other food  preparation  spaces,  food,  equipment,  utensils, dinnerware,  and  personnel  engaged  in  the  foodservice operation should be carefully monitored by qualified persons with appropriate monitoring equipment to learn 1-17

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