Toppings such as glazed nut, orange coconut, raisin,
streusel, pecan, or praline toppings are added to sweet
rolls or coffee cakes before baking.
Almost any lean dough formula, such as that for
French bread, can be used for making pizza. The major
difference between a particular formula for pizza and
lean bread doughs is that the yeast is not fed. That is,
sugar is not an ingredient in a pizza formula because it
is not needed to supply the yeast energy. Volume is not
a factor in pizza doughs.
Fermentation for pizza is
relatively short in comparison with other bread doughs
and makeup consists only of flattening the dough to the
Partially baked pizza crusts are prepared
commercially and frozen. Add galley-prepared pizza
sauce and bake according to package directions.
Desserts are popular in the GM. A dessert maybe
as simple as a fruit gelatin or as elaborate as a decorated
cake. The AFRS has a wide variety of recipes for all
types of desserts.
The AFRS also has step-by-step
procedures for the preparation and service of desserts,
but the end result is often determined by the dedication
and experience of the Mess Management Specialist
(MS) that prepares the dessert.
Cakes are popular desserts in the GM. A wide
variety of colors from a few basic recipes are possible
through the use of varied shapes, frostings, or fillings.
Cakes are easily made in large quantities and they are
less perishable than many other types of desserts.
Service in the GM is greatly facilitated by the use of
cakes for dessert because they can be made up ahead of
Cakes can be divided
according to the ingredients
into three separate types
and the proportions of the
ingredients used in each. The three types are batter
cakes, foam cakes, and chiffon cakes.
BATTER CAKES. Batter cakes contain
shortening. They include the pound cakes (loaf type)
containing a high percentage of fat, the plain cakes
(basic type of layer) containing smaller percentages of
fat, and the chocolate cakes (incorporating cocoa and
soda) such as devils food and mild chocolate cakes.
FOAM CAKES. Two kinds of foam cakes served
in the GM are angel food and sponge cakes. Angel food
cakes are foam cakes that are leavened by air beaten into
the egg white. Cream of tartar is added to the egg whites
to make them firmer when they are beaten.
Sponge cakes are foam cakes containing baking
powder and whole eggs. The eggs are combined with
the sugar and heated until the mixture is lukewarm
(110°F), and then the mixture is beaten.
CHIFFON CAKES. Chiffon cakes contain both
foam and batter, mixed separately and folded to a
The subdivisions of the three types are many and
dependent upon the method of incorporating the
ingredients and upon the variation of ingredients added
to the basic recipe. Batter and sponge-type cakes are the
ones normally prepared in Navy dining facilities;
consequently, further discussion will relate only to
Functions of Cake Ingredients
Each ingredient in a basic recipe has a specific
Flour furnishes structure and is used to hold the
other materials together in making a cake. It should be
a general-purpose flour.
Sugars, used chiefly as sweeteners, have a
tenderizing effect resulting from their ability to soften
flour protein and starches. By lowering the
caramelization point of the batter, sugars allow the cake
crust to color at a lower temperature. Sugars also help
to retain moisture in the baked cake, thereby keeping the
cake moist and edible for several days.
Shortening carries the air that is incorporated in the
finished cake batter. This air has a tenderizing action on
the cake by virtue of its leavening action. Thus,
shortening is considered to be a tenderizing agent.
Eggs furnish structure, moisture, flavor, and color.
Egg whites for whipping must be free from grease or
traces of egg yokeas little as one-tenth of 1 percent
will adversely affect the whipping quality.
Milk, water, fruit juice, or coffee can be used as the
liquid in cake. Liquid is needed to combine and actuate