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Appendix II - Glossary - 14164_314
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Appendix II - Glossary - 14164_316
KEBAB—(Turkey) A combination of cubes of meat, usually lamb, and chunks of vegetables or fruit, placed  alternately  on  a  skewer  and  broiled. KNEAD—To  alternately  press  and  turn  and  fold  dough with the hands for the purpose of expelling gas and redistributing the yeast. KOLACHES—(Czechoslovakia  or  Bohemia)  A  bun made from a soft dough topped with fruit, nuts, fruit-nut,  or  seed  fillings. LACTIC  ACID—An  organic  acid  sometimes  known as the acid of milk because it is produced when milk sours. Souring is caused by bacteria. LACTOSE—The sugar of milk. LADY  FINGERS—A  cookie  made  with  a  sponge  cake batter and baked in special pans. LARDING—To  cover  uncooked  lean  meat  or  fish  with strips of fat, or to insert strips of fat with a skewer. LASAGNA—(Italian)  A  baked  Italian  dish  with  broad noodles,  or  lasagna  macaroni,  which  has  been cooked,  drained,  and  combined  in  alternate  layers with  Italian  meat  sauce  and  two  or  three  types  of cheese (cottage, ricotta, parmesan, or mozzarella). LEAVENING—Raising  or  lightening  by  air,  steam,  or gas   (carbon   dioxide). Usually,  the  agent  for generating gas in a dough or batter is yeast or baking powder. LEVULOSE—A simple sugar found in honey, fruits, and invert sugar. LYONNAISE—(French)  A  seasoning  with  onions  and parsley  originating  in  Lyons,  France.  Sautéed potatoes, green beans, and other vegetables are seasoned  this  way. MACAROON—A  rich,  chewy  cookie  made  with almond paste and shredded coconut. MACEDOINE—(French)  A  name  derived  from  the country of Macedonia; refers to a mixture of fruits or vegetables used for garnish or as a cocktail. MADRILENE—(French) A name of a clear soup; other dishes flavored with tomato juice. MAGENTA—(Italian)   A   purplish   shade   of   red produced by the use of tomato juice as, for example, in  soup. MAITRE  D’HOTEL—(French)  Head  waiter;  also  a butter sauce used on fish. MAKEUP—Manual  or  mechanical  manipulation  of dough to provide a desired size and shape. MALT  EXTRACT—A  syrupy  liquid  obtained  from malt  mash;  a  product  obtained  as  a  result  of converting the starch to sugar. MARBLE  CAKE—A  cake  of  two  or  three  colored batters swirled together so that the finished product retains the separate colors. MARBLING—The intermingling of fat with lean in meat muscles. The presence or absence of marbling can be seen on the surface of meat that has been cut across  the  grain. The   presence   of   marbling indicates  quality  and  palatability  of  meat. MARINATE—To   cover   food   with   a   marinade   (a preparation containing spices, vegetables, herbs, and a liquid, usually acid) and let stand for a period of  time  to  enhance  its  flavor  and  improve  its tenderness. MARMALADE—A  thick,  pulpy  jam  or  preserve  made with crushed fruits. Marmalades made of citrus fruits contain bits of the peel. MARZIPAN—A confection of almonds reduced to a paste with sugar and used for modeling, masking, and  torte. MASKING—To cover completely with a sauce, jelly aspic, mayonnaise, cream, icing, or frosting. MEAT  SUBSTITUTE—Any  food  that  may  be  used  as an entré that does not contain beef, veal, pork, or lamb. The substitutes are protein-rich dishes such as eggs, fish, dried beans, and cheese. MELBA—A  cornstarch  dessert  sauce  most  frequently used with peaches; a very thin toasted bread is called melba toast. MELTING POINT—The temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid. MERINGUE—A  white  frothy  mass  of  beaten  egg whites and sugar. MIDDLINGS—Granular  particles  of  the  endosperm  of wheat that are removed during milling. MILANAISE—(French) Foods prepared a la milanaise contain eggs, parmesan cheese, and bread crumbs. Rice and macaroni products prepared ala milanaise may be formed into different shapes, dipped into egg batter, rolled in bread crumbs, fried, or panned and baked. AII-7

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