PANFRYING. Sautéing or shallow panfrying is
done on the range or griddle in a pan with just enough
fat to keep the meat from sticking. This method of
cooking is sometimes more economical and less work
when a small amount of food is to be fried
The fat should be heated to the proper temperature
before the meat is placed into it; otherwise, the meat will
absorb too much of the fat and will be unappetizing. The
correct temperatures are indicated on the recipe cards.
Liver, any tender meats (such as grill steaks), and
meat mixtures that are breaded or floured may be fried
with good results.
DEEP-FAT FRYING. Deep-fat frying is done by
completely immersing the meat in heated deep fat and
allowing it to remain in the fat until it is done.
Meat that is to be deep fried should be breaded to
prevent an excessive loss of moisture. It is also
important to have the fat at the proper temperature. If it
is too hot, the exterior of the meat will brown
excessively before the interior has had time to cook. If
it is too cool, the meat will absorb too much fat and be
greasy. A deep-fat thermometer is the only accurate way
to determine the temperature of the fat.
For best results, the pieces to be fried should be of
uniform size, and the basket should not be overloaded.
Just enough pieces should be placed in the basket to
completely cover the bottom of the fry basket. This
method permits the hot fat to completely surround the
meat and ensures thorough cooking. When the basket
is overloaded, the fat is cooled excessively, and the hot
fat cannot circulate freely.
Fry only one kind of meat or food item at a time.
Fry the meat as quickly as possible and only as needed
(practice batch cookery). Drain to remove excess fat
after cooking, then salt or season. Never salt or season
food directly over the fryer.
OVEN FRYING. Oven frying is similar to
baking or roasting except fat is added. Food may be
oven fried with or without breading.
DRY HEAT COOKING METHODS
Dry heat refers to cooking meat uncovered without
adding moisture. Dry heat methods include roasting,
baking, broiling, and grilling. These methods are used
for tender cuts of meat that have little connective tissue.
Grill steaks, beef patties with soy, ham slices, bacon,
liver, and pork sausage are suitable for grilling. In
grilling, the meat is placed directly on the ungreased
griddle. The heat is transmitted to the meat from the hot
metal of the griddle.
A moderate temperature is
maintained that prevents the meat from overbrowning.
Enough fat cooks out to keep the meat from sticking.
Excess fat should be removed as it collects to prevent
the meat from frying. Tongs or a food turner should be
used to turn the meat. Do not use a fork to turn the meat
because puncturing the meat with the tines of a fork
allows the juices to escape. If the juices escape the meat
becomes dry and coarse. Check the AFRS for cuts of
beef, lamb, and pork that may be grilled.
Pork requires thorough cooking to bring out its full
flavor. Braised pork chops are more desirable from the
standpoint of aroma, texture, tenderness, and flavor of
the lean meat. If pork chops and pork steaks are grilled,
they require additional cooking in the oven to ensure
complete doneness. Veal is usually not grilled because
it is a lean meat and has an abundance of connective
tissue that requires long, slow cooking.
Grilled meat is usually turned only once. The
seasoning is applied to the cooked side just after it is
Broiling is cooking by dry heat. Conventional and
continuous broilers are available in some Navy GMs.
For cooking times and temperatures, check the
manufacturers directions for cooking meats. Steaks
and hamburgers are generally cooked using broilers.
Where broilers are not available, grills are used
Roasting and Baking
The word roasting describes the cooking of meat
by dry heat in an oven. Any tender cut of beef, pork, or
lamb may be roasted. Baking is the preparation method
used in roasting ham, meat loaf, fish, and some chicken
Roasting pans should be of a heavy material with
low sides that allow meat to be cooked by hot air freely
circulating over and around the meat. Open pan roasting
will brown roasts evenly. Do not crowd roasts. Season
meat as directed on the AFRS recipes. If racks are
available, place roasts on racks to allow juices and fat to
drain from roasts as they are cooked.