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Storing ang Serving
Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Roll Production Precautions
Temperatures  of  86°F  and  above,  particularly temperatures   of   95°F   to   105°F,   promote   the development of rope. When the climatic condition is such  that  the  shop  temperature  is  high,  rope  could develop  even  in  doughs  that  are  lower  in  temperature than  85°F.  In  the  tropics,  high  humidity  often accompanies  high  temperature.  This  increases  the danger of rope developing in the bread. Also, doughs that are not sufficiently acid are highly subject to rope infection.  Since  acidity  is  normally  increased  through fermentation, an overly warm dough may not have time to become sufficiently acid to retard the development of rope. When the weather or climate is hot and humid, you should keep a sharp lookout for the appearance of rope and  do  everything  in  your  power  to  prevent  its development. By controlling the temperature of the doughs, you can keep them cold enough to retard the development  of  rope.  A  mold-preventive  inhibitor  can be   added   to   the   bread   dough.   To   prevent   the development of rope, you should take the following precautions: . Baking ingredients should not be kept in the shop longer than necessary, and those that are kept should be arranged in such a way as to allow free circulation of air around them. . The bread-baking schedule should be planned so that the bakery is not overstocked; this would result in some of the bread becoming old in the shop or in the storage room. . Bread that has accumulated and has become stale may be used for croutons and crumbs. . All bread should be thoroughly cooled before it is stored. . Keep equipment scrupulously clean and see that no  pieces  of  previous  doughs  are  allowed  to  remain  in the  shop.  The  shop  and  all  equipment  should  be thoroughly cleaned as soon after it is used as possible. In the event that rope does develop in your shop, it will be necessary to kill all the rope bacteria before you do any more baking. Generally, you should take the following  precautions: l l l Dispose  of  all  baked  products  and  baking ingredients in the shop. Thoroughly clean the shop and all the equipment. Wash  the  bulkheads,  decks,  and  overhead  with hot soapy water and rinse them thoroughly. l l l Remove all foreign matter from all equipment and tools and from the cracks and seams in the oven. Sterilize the workbench and all small equipment. Rinse down everything a second time with a strong vinegar and water solution. Mold.— Mold  is  composed  of  tiny  plants  that  are visible to the naked eye. There are many types of mold that vary in form and color. They form velvety, colored spots on the bread and create a musty odor. Mold spores are present in the air and will become visible on most any food substance if they are given sufficient time under proper conditions to develop. Mold will multiply in a warm, humid atmosphere or on moist food. The absence of light and sufficient time also contributes to their growth. Mold first appears on the side of the loaf. Mold is not resistant to heat; therefore, mold that may be present in baking ingredients will probably be killed during baking. This means that any mold on the baked bread is a result of improper handling of the bread after it is baked. To prevent the formation of mold in the bakeshop, take the following precautions: l l l l l l Keep the shop clean and dry. Assure proper circulation of air in the shop. Make sure all areas are lighted. Bake bread thoroughly and cool properly before storing it. Always avoid handling the bread with wet or damp  hands. Make sure bread is not kept for any length of time, since bread molds very quickly in storage. ROLLS Several types of hot rolls can be made from the basic recipe in the AFRS. The method of making rolls is the same as that used for making bread. However, less mixing is required and the dough is much softer. Careful handling of the dough will assure light, tender rolls. To make up the rolls, take the following steps (see fig, 8-2): 1. Divide the dough into 3- or 4-pound pieces. 8-8

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