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Principles of Storage - 14164_45
Mess Management Specialist 3 & 2 - Military manual for maintaining a mess hall
Frozen Fruits and Vegetables - 14164_47
Do not stack items near steam or other heated pipes. Use pallets or deck grating to raise the items off the deck and  stack  individual  lots  so  as  to  permit  proper circulation of air and facilitate cleaning. Bagged items and those requiring insect control should  not  be  stored  in  large  lots  in  corners  of  the storeroom  or  directly  against  the  bulkhead.  This  type  of storage will not permit sufficient room for cleaning and inspecting. When possible, palletized storage should be used to ease the handling of the stores and reduce losses through  breakage  in  handling. The safe storage period for dry food items varies greatly,  depending  on  such  elements  as  temperature, humidity, care in handling, protection from the weather, quality of the food when received, and the packing. Food items that have been on hand beyond the safe storage limit should be inspected for spoilage, leakage, or other damage. If such items are in good condition, use them as promptly as possible. Survey all items unfit for  human  consumption  according  to  the  NAVSUP P-486, volume I. Rotation of Semiperishable Food Items The  publication,  Retail  Subsistence  Management, NAVSUP   P-581,   contains   detailed   information regarding the rotation of semiperishable food items. Study the tables given in appendix E carefully. It is not practical to memorize them, but by careful study you should develop general ideas about the keeping times of the various foods and the changes that indicate a food item has been kept too long. The keeping times shown are average keeping times for products stored at 70°F. The  70°F  temperature  is  representative  of  average temperatures  at  most  Navy  stock  points.  Keeping  times will be reduced by approximately 50 percent if storage temperatures  are  maintained  at  90°F.  Keeping  times will  be  increased  by  approximately  100  percent  if storage temperatures are maintained at 40°F. PERISHABLE FOODS All foods are perishable. The term perishable as applied  here  refers  to  food  items  requiring  refrigeration and  special  handling. All  fresh  and  frozen  food  items  are  highly perishable  and  subject  to  rapid  deterioration  when improperly  stored.  They  require  accurate  temperatures, controlled humidity, air circulation, and special care in keeping  the  storage  space  sanitary.  Failure  to  maintain any one of these conditions will result in rapid spoilage and eventual loss. Most spoilage in fresh and frozen food items is caused by bacteria and fungi and spreads rapidly from the decayed items to the sound food items. You may be assigned as the MS in charge of the cold storage  area. When  such  is  the  case,  your  duties regarding storage and care of fresh and frozen food items are as follows: . Make frequent inspections, sort, and remove any decayed items or portions. This will keep losses and surveys  to  a  minimum. l Separate and mark shipments to make clear their relative ages. This allows the issue of oldest food items first unless there is some reason (such as the condition) for giving a newer lot priority. . Inspect food items to make sure Department of Defense (DOD) requirements are met. In the event frozen  stores  are  received  in  a  thawed  or  partially thawed condition, seek medical advice and refer to the NAVSUP P-486, volume I, for survey procedures. Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Raise the containers off the deck with pallets or gratings away from bulkheads and cooling coils and provide space between stacks, and at least 6 inches of clearance between tops of stacks and the opening of the air ducts to permit the circulation of air. In some cases it may be necessary to use a fan to maintain adequate circulation of all parts of the storeroom. SAFETY PRECAUTION: When fresh fruits and vegetables  are  stored  in  a  tight  compartment  at temperatures of 40°F or higher, the concentration of the carbon dioxide produced by respiration may reach a level in which it is unsafe to work. One way to check the amount of carbon dioxide present in a room is to light a match or candle. If the light is extinguished, do not work in the space until fresh air has been introduced. Meat and Meat Products Proper circulation of air is of prime importance in keeping the desired temperature in all parts of the meat storage space. Do not stack cases directly on the deck; use pallets or deck gratings to allow free circulation of air under all items stored in the space. Stacks should be at least 4 inches from the bulkhead or refrigeration coils. Generally,  when  the  recommended  temperature  in  all parts of the refrigerated space is uniform within the stacks, the circulation of air in the space is considered adequate. 2-12

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