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High-voltage  cable  shielding Ballast  and  radiation  shielding Lead exposure occurs during grinding, sanding, spraying,   burning,   melting,   and   soldering.   Lead exposure   can   also   occur   during   machining, disassembling   engines   with   leaded   gasoline,   and handling  contaminated  protective  clothing. The greatest hazard comes from lead dust, since we can  easily  inhale  or  ingest  the  fine  particles.  Most ingestion  exposures  occur  when  personnel  eat  or  smoke without washing the lead dust off their hands. Elements of the Lead Control Program The  Navy’s  Lead  Control  Program  includes  the following  elements: Medical  surveillance Worker  and  supervisor  training Control of lead in the workplace Environmental protection and waste disposal procedures Periodic industrial hygiene surveys to identify potential  hazards  from  lead  sources Whenever  possible,  the  Navy  substitutes  lower  lead content  or  lead-free  paints  and  coating  for  paints containing lead. However, many lead-based paints are still in use in the Navy today. Existing coatings of paint may contain lead, especially if they are 5 years old or older. Medical  Surveillance  for  Lead  Workers Medical surveillance for lead workers consists of a preplacement  medical  evaluation,  blood-lead  level monitoring,  and  follow-up  evaluations.  In  addition, medical surveillance includes removing personnel from exposure  to  lead,  when  necessary,  based  on  blood-lead levels. Personnel must take part in the program under the  following  conditions: When a work site is found to have an airborne level of 30 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air for over 8 hours When the workers handle lead at least 30 days per year We  must  teach  and  warn  occasional  lead  workers and handlers (those who handle lead less than 30 days per year) about the hazards of lead. RADIATION  PROTECTION  PROGRAM Radiation  is  energy  transmitted  through  space  in  the form   of   electromagnetic   waves   (rays)   or   nuclear particles.  Radiofrequency  radiation,  including microwaves; x-rays; and gamma, infrared, visible light, and ultraviolet rays are electromagnetic waves. Alpha particles,  beta  particles,  and  neutrons  are  nuclear particles. CATEGORIES OF RADIATION Radiation  is  commonly  divided  into  two  categories, which  are  indicative  of  the  energy  of  the  wave  or particle: ionizing and nonionizing radiation. Radiation with enough energy to strip electrons from atoms in the media through which it passes is known as ionizing radiation.  Examples  include  alpha  particles,  beta particles,  x-rays,  and  gamma  rays.  Less  energetic radiation that is not capable of such electron stripping is known   as   nonionizing   radiation.   Radio   waves, microwaves,  visible  light,  and  ultraviolet  radiation belong to this category. Potentially  hazardous  sources  of  ionizing  and nonionizing  radiation  exist  aboard  Navy  ships.  Ionizing radiation  sources  include  radioactive  material  and equipment that generate x-rays. Lasers, radar, and communications  equipment  emit  nonionizing  radiation. RADIATION  PROTECTION PROGRAM  ELEMENTS The  Radiation  Protection  Program  consists  of  the following  elements: Training Medical  surveillance Identification and evaluation of radiation sources Investigation and reporting of radiation incidents Use of dosimetry to monitor exposure to ionizing radiation OPNAVINST 5100.23C, chapter 22, and OPNAV- INST  5100.19B,  chapter  B9,  outline  the  Radiation Protection  Program.  This  program  is  designed  to minimize personnel exposure to radiation from sources other than nuclear weapons and nuclear power systems. 5-17

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