officer reports the findings of the near-mishap
investigation on an Internal Mishap/Near Mishap
Investigation Report (fig. 3-5). If you ignore the
conditions that cause near-mishaps, you are sure to
invite a real mishap.
Injury reports and trends in minor injuries can
identify hazards and problem areas. Trends may reveal
a lack of training, poor enforcement of PPE use, or an
incorrect operating procedure.
Reports of injuries are treated as follows:
Afloat, the medical department treating a
crewmember completes an injury report and forwards it
to the safety officer for investigation.
Ashore, the OSH office or command keeps a log
of Navy injuries and occupational illnesses (civilian and
military ashore). It also submits a quarterly report of
Navy and civilian occupational injuries and illnesses, as
well as an annual report.
Shore activities also maintain records of all Federal
Employees Compensation Act (FECA) claims. These
claims can also alert a safety manager to local mishaps
and hazard trends.
Once we have identified and reported a hazard, the
next step is corrective action. How do we get it fixed?
Some remedies are simple. If someone is not wearing
goggles, you provide a pair of goggles. Some corrective
actions may be extensive and expensive. Renovation of
a ventilation system to remove acid mist may take years.
We can take temporary measures to protect workers, but
we must take permanent measures to decrease the
One of the first steps in a hazard abatement program
is to prioritize the hazards. That requires assessing the
hazard and assigning some type of quantifier. Each
identified hazard that cannot be corrected immediately
is assigned a risk assessment code (RAC). The RAC
represents the degree of risk associated with the
deficiency based on the combined elements of hazard
severity and mishap probability. You derive the RAC
as explained in the following paragraphs.
The hazard severity is an assessment of the worst
potential consequence that is likely to occur as a result
of a deficiency. The most unfavorable degree of injury,
occupational illness, or property damage defines the
worst potential consequence. The OSH office or
safety officer assigns roman numerals to hazard severity
categories using the following criteria:
Category I Catastrophic: The hazard may
cause death or loss of a facility.
Category II Critical: May cause severe injury,
severe occupational illness, or minor property
Category III Marginal: May cause minor
injury, minor occupational illness, or minor
Category IV Negligible: Probably would not
affect personnel safety or health, but is
nevertheless in violation of a NAVOSH standard.
The mishap probability is the likelihood that a
hazard will result in a mishap. The mishap probability
is based on the assessment of such factors as location,
cycles or hours of operation, and affected population.
The OSH office or safety officer assigns an arabic letter
to the mishap probabilities according to the following
Subcategory A: Likely to occur immediately or
within a short period of time.
Subcategory B: Probably will occur in time.
Subcategory C: May occur in time.
Subcategory D: Unlikely to occur.
The risk assessment code (RAC) is an expression of
risk that combines the elements of hazard severity and