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Cloud  Characteristics,  Continued - 14220_305
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Cloud Characteristics, Continued Fog Fog  at  sea  is  frequently  formed  through  the  process  known  as  advection (the  transport  of  an  atmospheric  property  solely  by  the  mass  motion  of the  atmosphere).  If  warm  air  that  passed  over  warm  water  moves  to  an area  where  the  water  is  colder,  fog  is  likely  to  develop  in  the  latter region.  The  temperature  of  seawater  is  fairly  uniform  within  a  large area  and  accounts  for  fog  that  often  lasts  for  many  days  and  nights  at sea. The  great  fog  banks  of  the  North  Atlantic,  as  well  as  those  around  the Aleutians,  demonstrate  what  can  happen  when  two  adjacent  bodies  of water  have  markedly  different  temperatures.  In  the  vicinity  of Newfoundland,  warm  air  that  has  passed  over  the  warm  Gulf  Stream quickly  turns  to  fog  when  it  strikes  the  inshore  current  of  very  cold water  that  flows  southward  along  the  coastline.  Off  Alaska,  the  same situation  prevails  when  the  air  from  over  the  warm  Japanese  stream (Kuroshio)  comes  in  contact  with  the  cold  southward-flowing  waters  of the  Bering  Sea  (Oyashio). Along  coastlines  special  conditions  may  exist.  Onshore  winds  blow warm,  moist  air  inland  from  the  ocean.  The  waters  adjacent  to  the  coast are  sometimes  colder  than  those  farther  offshore.  At  night  an  onshore wind  lays  down  a  thick  blanket  of  fog  that  often  extends  some  distance inland.  The  fog  hangs  on  until  the  Sun  heats  up  the  land  enough  to evaporate  the  droplets  or  until  an  offshore  wind  drives  the  fog  blanket away. How  can  you  tell  when  a  fog  is  on  the  way  or  in  the  process  of formation?  The  difference  between  the  temperature  shown  by  the  wet bulb  and  the  dry  bulb  of  the  psychrometer,  called  wet-bulb  depression,  is your  fog  indicator. In  general,  fog  forms  when  the  depression  is  4°  or  less.  A  continuous record  of  the  wet-bulb  depression  serves  as  a  fairly  reliable  predictor  of fog. 10-10

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