n Discussion of primary, alternate, or emergency procedures.
n Explanation or definition of tasks.
n Observation from illustration or operation.
n Evaluation of the appropriateness of a procedure or technique.
Model Answer or Grading Criteria
The essay test item must also contain a model answer you will use to grade the question.
Observe the following guidelines in developing a model answer:
9 Make sure the grading criteria identifies all of the essential information a knowledgeable
student should be able to supply.
n Make sure it promotes objective scoring of the test item by establishing a standard answer
from which to judge all others.
n Make sure it identifies how much each item or part of an item is worth.
Validation Of Test Items
Once you have constructed the test items, and before you actually assemble the test, validate
the content of the items. Make sure they are technically and grammatically accurate, that they
measure the objective, and that the items adhere to the guidelines presented in the preceding
paragraphs. Have technically qualified SMEs perform the validation process. The individuals
validating the test item should answer the following questions:
n Is the item technically accurate and is the correct response keyed?
n Is the item written to measure the objective?
n Does the item measure a knowledge critical to the task associated with the objective?
n Is the item written to the appropriate learning level?
n If recognition, recall, or comprehension of the knowledge being tested is required for
competent performance on the job, is the item a closed-book item?
n If the knowledge being tested is normally looked up during performance of on-the-job
task(s), is the item an open-book item and is the essential reference material supplied?
n Are all words spelled correctly? Is the grammar correct?
n Does the item meet format construction guidelines?
If the answer to any of the preceding validation criteria is NO, correct the discrepancy and
revalidate the test item. If the item meets the validation criteria, then it should be approved for
Test Item Analysis
After the test items have been reviewed for content validity and administered to the students,
statistics will be kept by the course personnel to complete the validation process. These statistics
include discrimination; difficulty; and for multiple choice items, effectiveness of alternatives.