Click Here to
Order this information in Print

Click Here to
Order this information on CD-ROM

Click Here to
Download this information in PDF Format


Click here to make your Home Page

Page Title: Rules of Evidence
Back | Up | Next

Click here for a printable version




Information Categories
.... Administration
Food and Cooking
Nuclear Fundamentals
  Educational CD-ROM's
Printed Manuals
Downloadable Books



military  operations  of  obtaining  the  witness’  appear- ance. This balancing test means that the more impor- tant the expected testimony of the witness, the greater the  difficulty,  expense,  delay,  or  effect  on  military operations  must  be  to  permit  nonproduction.  Similar considerations apply to the production of documen- tary and real evidence. For  both  military  and  civilian  witnesses,  the  pre- trial investigation officer makes the initial determina- tion   on   availability.   For   military   witnesses,   the immediate  CO  of  the  witness  may  overrule  the  pretrial investigation  officer’s  determination.  The  decision not to make a witness available is subject to review by the military judge at trial. A  civilian  witness  whose  testimony  is  material must be invited to testify, although he or she cannot be  subpoenaed  or  otherwise  compelled  to  appear at the investigation. Thus, the pretrial investigation officer should make a bona fide effort to have such civilian witnesses appear voluntarily, offering trans- portation expenses and a per diem allowance if neces- sary. STATEMENTS The  pretrial  investigation  officer  has  a  number  of alternatives to live testimony. When a witness is not reasonably available, even if the defense objects, the pretrial investigation officer may consider that wit- ness’ sworn statement. Unless the defense objects, a pretrial investigation officer may also consider, re- gardless  of  the  availability  of  the  witness,  sworn  and unsworn  statements,  prior  testimony,  and  offers  of proof  of  expected  testimony  of  that  witness. Upon objection, only sworn statements may be considered. Since objections to unsworn statements are generally made, every effort should be made to get sworn statements. All statements considered by the pretrial investigation officer should be shown to the accused  and  the  counsel.  The  same  procedure  should be  followed  with  respect  to  documentary  and  real evidence. TESTIMONY All testimony given at the pretrial investigation must be given under oath and is subject to cross-ex- amination  by  the  accused  and  the  counsel  for  the government.  The  accused  has  the  right  to  offer  either 7-24 sworn or unsworn testimony. If undue delay will not result, the statements of the witnesses who testified at the hearing should be obtained under oath. In this connection,  the  pretrial  investigation  officer  is  autho- rized  to  administer  oaths  in  connection  with  the  per- formance of his or her duties. RULES OF EVIDENCE The  rules  of  evidence  applicable  to  trial  by  court- martial do not strictly apply at the pretrial investiga- tion, and the pretrial investigation officer need not rule  on  objections  raised  by  counsel  except  where  the procedural requisites of the investigation itself are concerned.  This  normally  means  that  counsel’s  objec- tions are merely noted on the record. Since the rules of evidence do not strictly apply, cross-examination of witnesses may be very broad and searching and should not be unduly restricted. HEARING  DATE Once the prehearing preparation has been com- pleted, the pretrial investigation officer should con- vene  the  hearing.  The  pretrial  investigation  is  a public  hearing  and  should  be  held  in  a  place  suitable for  a  quasi-judicial  proceeding.  Accused,  counsel, reporter  (if  one  is  used),  and  witnesses  should  be present.  Witnesses  must  be  examined  one  by  one, and no witness should be permitted to hear another testify. POSTHEARING  PROCEDURES After  the  hearing  is  completed,  the  investigat- ing officer prepares his or her report and submits it to the CO who directed the investigation. Figure 7-5 illustrates  a  completed  investigating  officer’s  re- port.  The  CO  considers  the  investigating  officer’s recommendation  as  to  disposition,  but  he  or  she need  not  follow  it.  The  CO  may  dispose  of  the charges  as  he  or  she  sees  fit.  If  the  CO  deems  a GCM is appropriate, but lacks the authority to con- vene such a court-martial, then he or she must send the report to the area coordinator, absent direction to  the  contrary  from  the  OEGCMJ  in  his  or  her chain  of  command. The report is sent with an endorsement that in- cludes the recommendation of the officer directing the pretrial   investigation,   the  recommendations  of  the

Privacy Statement - Press Release - Copyright Information. - Contact Us - Support Integrated Publishing

Integrated Publishing, Inc. - A (SDVOSB) Service Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business